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  Important Articles - Aqaid AhleSunnah Wa Jammatاہم مضا مین ۔ عقا ئد اہل سنت و جما عت


Hazrat Pir Syed Meher Ali Shah Sahib
Published Date: Tuesday, January 24, 2017 - 12:00 AM


Hazrat Pir Syed Meher Ali Shah Sahib of Golra Sharif (to be referred hereinafter simply as “Hazrat”) was a descendent, on his father’s side, of Hazrat Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani (R.A) in the 25th generation, and of the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him, P.B.U.H) of Islam through Syedna Hassan Ibn-e-Ali (R.A) in the 38th generation. On the side of his mother, he descended from Hazrat Ghaus-e-Azam (R.A) in the 24th generation and from the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) through Syedna Hussain Ibn-e-Ali (R.A) in the 37th generation.
It is universally acknowledged that in the matter of nobility of ancestry in relation to the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), no one can equal Syedna Hassan (R.A) and Syedna Hussain (R.A), the two sons of Syedah Fatimah-tuz-Zahrah (R.A), the youngest and the dearest daughter of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) whom the Prophet (P.B.U.H) had termed “a piece of my being”, and Syedna Ali (R.A), the Prophet’s cousin and son in law, who became the fourth Righteous Caliph of Islam after the passing away of the Prophet (P.B.U.H). Out of affection the Prophet (P.B.U.H) himself called Syedna Hasan and Hussain his grand children his own sons on a number of occasions. The reference to “our sons” in ayah (verse) 61 of Surah Al-e-Imran (chapter 3) of the Holy Quran is also interpreted, on the basis of the Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) own example as referring to Syedna Hassan and Hussain (R.A).
According to Quranic teaching, the real test of nobility in the sight of Allah lies in the beauty of a person’s righteous character and the extent to which he (or she) fears God and performs good deeds (cf. ayah 13 of Surah XLIX). While personal qualities and endeavour are essential in socio-religious and spiritual spheres as in any other, noble lineage and environment undoubtedly provide the backdrop in which piety and virtue can germinate and thrive.

Distinctive dignity of kinship with the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)

Holy Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) being the last and the greatest of all true Prophets of Allah, ancestral link with him constitutes a criterion of nobility unequalled by any other similar link. At many places in the Quran, special rules of conduct are laid down by Allah for members of the Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) household (Ahl-e-bai’at) (cf. Surah 33, Ayah 28-30), special tests of virtue and vice and requital therefore are prescribed for them and a categoric assurance is given that Allah wishes to “cleanse the Ahl-e-bai’at with a thorough cleansing”.  
Confirmation of Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah’s ancestral link with the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)

A testimonial was granted to the two of the ancestors of Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A), Pir Syed Roshan Din Shah and Pir Syed Rasul Shah in the year 1211 A.H by the then head of Hazrat Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam’s shrine at Baghdad, Hazrat Syed Habib-e-Mustafa Ibn Syed Qasim Qadiri (R.A), confirming the Prophetic lineage of Hazrat’s family.

It stated that:
“In point of ancestry and lineage, these two gentlemen, Pir Syed Roshan Din and  Pir Syed Rasul Shah, are off-springs of Hazrat Syedna Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani (R.A). In point of grace and blessedness, they are his true heirs and legatees, and I regard them as my own sons. Devotees of the exalted Qadriyah Silsila (chain) should therefore regard their hand as my hand and their word as my word”.
When the family of Hazrat, after its sojourns in various parts of India on migration from Baghdad, finally settled down in village Golra of the Punjab province of this country, the people then inhabiting this area were greatly impressed by the piety and saintly character of its members, and started thronging to them for guidance and blessings. However, the veneration accorded to this newly arrived family aroused feelings of jealousy among the “Syeds” already living in the area, who were mostly of Shi’ah denomination and felt their own position and influence threatened by the new-comers. One of the ploys used by these people to undermine the popularity of Hazrat’s family was to refuse to accept their prophetic lineage until concrete and conclusive written proof in support of it was produced by them. Since such proof was duly forthcoming, the detractors gained nothing but ignominy from their campaign. The family’s position was, however, decisively vindicated by an incident that occurred around this time. 
In a gathering at the house of one of the detractors, the latter challenged Pir Syed Roshan Din, Hazrat’s great-Grand father who was one of the invitees, to produce his irrefutable evidence about his being a true “Syed”. Pir Syed Roshan Din first requested the person to desist from such improper behaviour, which violated the accepted norms of hospitality. When he refused to do so, the Pir Sahib put down the cap he was then wearing on his head on the floor and challenged any one then present to lift it if he could. Several persons in the audience tried one after another to lift the cap but failed to do so until the Pir Sahib himself accorded permission for this purpose. The detractor, publicly put to shame in this manner, apologized for his unbecoming behaviour. The incident added greatly to the prestige and estimation of the family of Hazrat, and the people of the area started rallying to it in ever-greater numbers to seek its blessings and solicit its guidance.
Principle Ancestors of Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib

Syedna Hazrat Ali (R.A)
The ancestors of Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib are known to have rendered invaluable services to the cause of Islam in every period of history. Syedna Ali (R.A), the fourth Righteous Caliph, who tops the list, carried out memorable feats of heroism in almost all the Ghazawat i.e., military campaigns led personally by the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H). The only ghazawa missed by him was that of Tabuk (9-A.H), when Prophet (P.B.U.H) left him behind in Madina as his Deputy, to take care of affairs in the Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) absence, in the same manner as Prophet Moses (Musa) had left behind his brother Aaron (Harun) when summoned by Allah to the Mount of Sina’i for the conferment of prophethood on him and for grant of “the Ten Commandments”.

Syedna Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain (R.A) 
After Syedna Ali (R.A), the services of his illustrious sons Imam Hassan (R.A) and Imam Hussain (R.A) also constitute a bright chapter of Islamic history. To quote only two instances, Syedna Imam Hassan, in order solely to prevent a violent clash between two groups of Muslims, decided to forgo his rightful claim to the Caliphate, after the passing away of Syedna Ali (R.A), in favour of the other candidate, Hazrat Amir Mu’awiyah. He thus fulfilled the prediction made by the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) to that effect at a time when Syedna Hassan (R.A) was only a few years old. As for his younger brother, Syedna Imam Hussain (R.A), the supreme sacrifice given by him in the desert plain of Karbala (Iraq) in 61 A.H in a battle in which only 72 ill-equipped persons (including women and children of his household) were pitted against a heavily armed horde of several thousand men, will be remembered in the annals of history for all time to come. The issue at stake then was Syedna Hussain’s refusal to pledge allegiance to Yazid, who had assumed power as Caliph after the demise of his father, Hazrat Amir Mu’awiyah, but who was known to be a man of impious habits and was therefore unworthy to be the ruler of Muslims. The clash mentioned above resulted from Yazid’s insistence on extorting Imam Hussain’s allegiance to his caliphate by force. The latter, however, valiantly resisted this and thereby upheld the loftiest Islamic ideals of governance.
The later generations of Syedna Hassan and Hussain (R.A) maintained their glorious and trail-blazing traditions as and when the occasion demanded this. All this leads to conclusion that the sustenance of the religious, secular, moral, social, intellectual and spiritual values of the Islamic world has, over the centuries, been due in large measures to the endeavours of the house of Syed Ali (R.A). Imam-e-Azam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik, two of foremost jurists of Islam, and founder of their respective juridical schools, were pupils of Imam Jaffer Sadiq (R.A), the great-grandson of Hazrat Syedna Imam Hussain (R.A), while Imam Shafi was a student of Imam Musa Kazim (R.A). In the spiritual field, almost all the leading schools of Tasawwuf trace their origin to Syedna Ali (R.A). These include the Qadriyah, the Chishtia, the Suharwardia, the Uwaisiyah and others. Only Naqshbandia is traced back to first Righteous Caliph Syedna Abubakar (R.A).
Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam Abdul Qadir Jilani (R.A)
In the family of Hazrat Syedna Ali (R.A), Hazrat Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam Abdul Qadir Jilani (471-562 A.H) stands out as the great guide who imparted a new life to the Islamic faith, then passing through a critical phase of misdoings of the rulers and the apathy of the general run of its ulama. This earned him the abiding title of Muhyuddin (reviver of religion). Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam is universally accepted as the greatest of all Awlia-Allah (Friends of Allah), and occupies a place of surpassing spiritual eminence that has not been vouchsafed to any other personality in the entire Islamic Ummah.

Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib was a direct descendent, in the 25th generation, of Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam, and was also one of the most illustrious of the latter’s spiritual beneficiaries especially in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent. 

Family Tree Of Pir Mehr Ali Shah :

a)      On the Father’s side

Syedna Meher Ali Shah Sahib ibn (son of)
Syed Nazr Din Shah ibn
Syed Ghulam Shah ibn
Syed Roshan Din Shah ibn
Syed Abul Rahman Nuri ibn
Syed Inayat Ullah ibn
Syed Ghayas Ali ibn
Syed Fatehullah ibn
Syed Asadullah ibn
Syed Fakhar-ud-din ibn
Syed Ihsan Ibn
Syed Dargahi ibn
Syed Jamaal Ali ibn
Syed Muhammad Jamaal ibn
Syed Abi Muhammad ibn
Syed Miran Muhammad (The elder) ibn
Syed Miran Shah Qumais Sadhoravi ibn
Syed Abil Hayat ibn
Syed Taj-ud-din ibn
Syed Baha-ud-din ibn
Syed Jalal-ud-din ibn
Syed Daud ibn
Syed Ali ibn
Syed Abi Saleh Nasr ibn
Syed Taj-ud-din Abubakar Abdul Razzaq Jilani ibn
Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam Muhyuddin Abdul Qadir Jilani ibn
Syed Abu Saleh ibn
Syed Abdullah Jili ibn Syed Yahya Zahid ibn
Syed Shams-ud-din Zakariya ibn
Syed Abubakar Daud ibn
Syed Musi Thani ibn
Syed Abdullah Saleh ibn
Syed Musa Al-Jawn ibn
Syed Abdullah Mahd ibn
Syed Hasan Muthanna ibn
Syed Imam Hasan Al Mujtaba ibn
Syedna Ali (Karam Allah-o-Wajhu)
(Allah be pleased with them all)

b)     On the Mother’s side

   Hazrat Masuma Mawsufa (Hazrat’s mother) bint (i.e., daughter of)
Pir Syed Bahadur Shah ibn
Syed Sher Shah ibn
Syed Charagh Shah ibn
Syed Amir Shah ibn
Syed Abdullah Shah ibn
Syed Mubarak Shah ibn
Syed Hussain Shah ibn
Syed Amir Shah ibn
Syed Muhammad Muqim Shah ibn
Syed Abdul Mu’ali ibn
Syed Nur Shah ibn
Syed Lal Baha-ud-din alias Bahawal Sher Qadri (of Hujra Shah Muqim, Sahiwal) ibn Syed Mahmud ibn
Syed Ala-ud-din ibn
Syed Masih-ud-din ibn
Syed Sadar-ud-din ibn
Syed Zaheer-ud-din ibn
Syed Shamsul Arifin Qadri ibn
Syed Momin ibn
Syed Mushtaq ibn
Syed Ali ibn
Syed Abi Saleh Nasr ibn
Syed Taj-ud-din Abubakar Abdul Razzaq ibn
Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam Muhyuddin Abdul Qadir Jilani ibn
Syed Abu Saleh ibn
Syed Abdullah Jili ibn
Syed Yahya Zahid ibn
Syed Shams-ud-din Zakariya ibn
Syed Abubakar Daud ibn
Syed Musi Thani ibn
Syed Abdullah Saleh ibn
Syed Musa Al-Jawn ibn
Syed Abdullah Mahd ibn
Syed Hasan Muthanna ibn
Syed Imam Hasan Al Mujtaba ibn
Syedna Ali (Karam Allah-o-Wajhu)
(Allah be pleased with them all)
Other ancestors of Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib (R.A)  
Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib had descended from Syed Taj-ud-din Abdul Razzaq, the middle son of Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam, whose spiritual school (Qadriyah Razzaqiyah) is spread far and wide in the Islamic world. Syed Abdul Razzaq ranked very high among the mashaikh of his time, and was widely known as the Mufti (Expounder of Islamic Law) of Iraq. Despite being the middle son of Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam, the honour of headship and executive leadership of Ghausia Shrine at Baghdad has passed down mostly to members of his family tree. Tradition has it that one of his sons, Syed Jamaal Ullah, who was held very dear by Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam and who also bore a striking resemblance to the latter, was granted eternal life by the special Grace of Allah, and had, as a result, disappeared from the sight of the common people not long after the passing away of Hazrat Ghaus-e-Azam (R.A).

The second son of Hazrat Abdul Razzaq, Syed Abu Saleh, had been officially appointed by the then Khalifa (Caliph) to the high office of Mufti of Iraq. Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah was the descendent of his son, Syed Ali Qadiri Baghdadi, who was a distinguished scholar and was the author of several books.

Syed Taj-ud-din Mehmood, belonging to the fourth generation after Syed Ali Qadiri, was the first to arrive from Baghdad in Bengal, then a province of India, in the 9th Hijrah century. He was accorded a place of honour by the then Muslim ruler of Bengal, Sultan Feroz Shah, who allocated an estate for his Khankah. However, Syed Taj-ud-din returned to Baghdad after a few years’ missionary work, leaving behind his son Syed Abil Hayat to carry on his mission in Bengal.
After his demise, Syed Abil Hayat was succeeded by his son, Miran Shah Qadir Qumais who attained fame not only in Bengal but also in other parts of India. On the outbreak of hostilities between the Mughal King Humayun and Sher Shah Suri, Shah Qumais went back to Baghdad, and returned to India when peace had been restored after several years. This time he settled down in Gangoh, where the well-known Shaikh belonging to Chishtia Sabriya school, Abdul Quddus Gangohi, was well-established. Despite his eminent position and his advanced age, however, Shaikh Abdul Quddus personally welcomed Shah Qumais on his arrival in the outskirts of the city. Shaikh Abdul Quddus Gangohi (852-945 A.H) ranks along the leading mashaikh of the Chishtia Sabriya school second in eminence only to the founder of the school himself, Syedna Ala-ud-din Ahmad Sabir (R.A) of Kaliar Sharif, District Saharanpur (India). Many distinguished mashaikh are included among his spiritual legatees.
From Gangoh, Hazrat Qadir Qumais went to Bengal, but finding things not conducive there, he moved to the town of Sadhora then known as Shah Dhora in District Saharanpur (India) and settled down there. He passed away in Bengal, where the then Mughal ruler had sent him on some mission in 992 A.H., but his body was brought back to Sadhora and buried there.
Hazrat Shah Muhammad Fazil Qalandar, a grandson of Hazrat Shah Qumais, carried on the latter’s mission with distinction until his demise in 1104 A.H.
Pir Syed Roshan Din Shah (R.A) and Pir Syed Rasul Shah (R.A)
In the 12th generation of Shah Abdul Qadir Qumais, a gentleman named Syed Abdul Rahman Nuri went to the Hijaz for Hajj (the annual Muslim pilgrimage in Makkah), but on his way back was ill and passed away in Basra (Iraq). In accordance with his will, his awrad-o-wazaif (collection of recitations) were buried along with his body. When his sons, Syed Roshan Din Shah and Syed Rasul Shah, learnt about this in Sadhora, they walked all the way to Basra and kept a six-month vigil at the tomb of their father. Miraculously, the books came out of the grave on their own one-day, and taking hold of them, the two brothers went to the Hijaz to perform Hajj. From there they proceeded to Baghdad and Basra, then on to Kabul (Afghanistan), and finally, on the way to their hometown of Sadhora, they decided to take up residence in the village Golra near Rawalpindi (Punjab, India). This happened around the end of the 12thHijra century, when the Mughal throne in Delhi was occupied by Shah Alam II. The province of Bengal had already been conquered by the British, then represented by the East India Company. The period was marked by the anarchy everywhere, with the Sikhs having conquered the Punjab province, and the Englishmen and the Marhattas glancing avidly towards Delhi, with designs to overthrow the once mighty but now weak and emaciated Mughal Empire in India. The region in which Sadhora was situated was plagued by unrest following the third battle of Panipat between the Marhattas and Ahmed Shah Abdali in 1760-61 A.D. which the latter had won. Because of all this, Syed Roshan Din and Syed Rasul Shah preferred not to go on to Sadhora. Instead, they asked their family members and other associates to leave Sadhora and join them in Golra, which they considered a haven of peace and security, and also conducive to their missionary work. Hazrat Syed Roshan Din (R.A) was the great grandfather of Syedna Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib (R.A).
Hazrat Syed Miran Shah (R.A) and Hazrat Pir Fazl Din Shah (R.A)             
The spiritual legacy of Syed Roshan Din (R.A) and Syed Rasul Shah (R.A) passed on to Syed Miran Shah (R.A) and Syed Fazl Din (R.A), the two teen-aged sons of Syed Rasul Shah. The two young men were, therefore, taught and brought up under the care of Sa’in Ali Muhammad alias Miskeen Shah Panipatti, not a member of the august family but the leading Khalifa (spiritual deputy) of Syed Rasul Shah (R.A).
Syed Miran Shah was quite a strict observer of the Shariah, but was at same time ecstatically inclined. Syed Fazl Din (R.A), however, was an eminent scholar and a distinguished spiritual personality. People thronged to him from far and near regardless of their religious or social standing, in search of solace and guidance. His Langer (free kitchen) was well known in the neighbourhood. He was blessed with Kashf (clairvoyance) and Karamat (mini-miracles). Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) received his spiritual initiation at the hand of Syed Fazl Din (R.A) and had embarked upon his mission of spiritual guidance about 11 years before the latter’s demise. Hazrat Fazl Din remained a celibate all his life, and passed away in 1892-93 (12- Zi’qad, 1311 A.H.) at the age of 108 years. His mausoleum is located at a short distance to the northwest of shrine (Darbar) of Golra Sharif.
Hazrat Syed Nazr Din Shah (alias “Ajji Sahib) (R.A) – Hazrat’s father    
Syed Nazr Din Shah (R.A), father of Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A), was the grand son of Syed Roshan Din Shah (R.A) mentioned above. Syed Nazr Din, who later became known as “Ajji Sahib” because of being the father (called ‘Ajji’ in the local Potohari language) of Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib, was born in Golra in 1815 (1234-35 A.H). He is known to have been a born Wali (saint), a fact which received providential endorsement through an incident that occurred during his youth.
In his early age, Ajji Sahib used to remain constantly occupied in his studies and in prayers and recitations in the ancestral mosque in Golra. The Sikh section of the village was located close to this mosque. It so happened that an unmarried girl belonging to the local Sikh sub-divisional officer (SDO) was found to be bearing an immorally conceived child. Taking advantage of this situation, a confidante of the SDO, who was bitterly jealous of the increasingly popularity and influence of the newly arrived Syed family, falsely accused the young Ajji Sahib of being responsible for the affair. Without seeking any authentic proof of this baseless charge, the SDO ordered Ajji Sahib to be arrested and burnt alive in the punishment for the crime. When delegations of local and neighbouring Muslims met the SDO to plead the innocence of the pious scion of the highly respected family, the latter agreed to acquit him only if Hazrat Syed Fazl Din, who then headed the Golra Khankah, appeared in person before him to assure him of the young man’s innocence. Hazrat Fazl Din Shah, however, refused to do so, and asked the SDO to do whatever he deemed fit, adding that if the boy was really guilty it was better for the family’s honour if he was burnt to death. The people of the area decided to meet the situation with force, but the Pir Sahib strictly forbade them to do so. The women of the locality offered ransom to the SDO in the form of their jewellery and ornaments, but the offer was rejected by him.
On the appointed day, a large pyre was prepared under an armed guard to carry out the penalty. On the preceding night, Hazrat Ajji Sahib was honoured by the visit of Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam (R.A) in dream, when the latter exhorted him to take a bath, wear a new dress, and offer a couple of nawafil (supererogatory prayers), before proceeding to the pyre. Ajji Sahib carried out these directions and calmly seated himself on the pyre. Kerosene oil was then poured on the pyre and a burning match applied to it. The pyre, however, failed to catch fire despite repeated efforts. The accusing person then poured more kerosene on the clothes of Ajji Sahib and on his long curly hair. However, even though the pyre did then go ablaze, the fire failed completely to touch Ajji Sahib’s body. When the news of this miraculous vindication of innocence was conveyed to the SDO, he ordered the accuser himself to be burnt on the same pyre for bringing a totally false charge against an innocent young man of an honoured family. He also rendered an unqualified apology to Hazrat Fazl Din for his misjudgment of the case. Both the latter and Ajji Sahib himself, however, asked forgiveness for the convicted. In fact Ajji Sahib did not leave the pyre until this demand had been met by the SDO.
Not long after this incident, the Sikh rule in the Punjab came to an end, and the province came under the British rule.
Hazrat Ajji Sahib was married to a lady of a Gilani Syed family descendant from Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam (R.A), which was then settled in the town of Hasan-Abdal, about 25 miles to the north-west of Golra. It was through this union that Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah was born, making him Gilani Syed from the sides of both his parents.
Hazrat Ajji Sahib, who was a disciple of his maternal uncle, Pir Fazl Din Shah (R.A) in the Qadriyah Jaddiyah school, possessed many virtues and praiseworthy traits of character. The foremost of these was his generosity and magnificence, and his concern for the poor, the needy, and the oppressed and down-trodden. He lived long enough to see his distinguished son, Hazrat Meher Ali Shah Sahib, rise to dizzy heights of spiritual eminence. His own circle of beneficiaries and disciples was also quite vast. He passed away at the age of 90 years on 24 Rajab, 1324 A.H. (1905 AD) and was buried adjacent to the mosque at Golra instead of in a separate tomb, in deference to his own wishes. Besides Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib, who was then 50 years of age, Ajji Sahib left behind two more sons, Syed Mehmood Shah and Wilayat Shah, and a daughter. 
 
Birth
Hazrat Syed Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) was born on Monday, 1st Ramadan, 1275 A.H (14th April 1859 A.D) in Golra Sharif.
The birth of this greatest eminent scholar proved to be the dawn of Muslim Ummah. The time before Hazrat’s birth saw the war of independence of 1857 being fought between the British and the Muslims. After that unsuccessful war of independence, there was need for supporting the cause of Islam and the need to retain the light of true religion that was constantly being diminished by the wrong doings of the Muslims of the sub-continent. As said in the Holy Quran “We have, without doubt, sent down the message and we will assuredly guard it”. (XV-9)
Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah – a Born Wali
Hadith (tradition of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) is the most reliable source  of guidance along the Holy Quran for the Muslims. According to an authentic hadith of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) traced to Abu Huraira (R.A):
“Abi Huraira (R.A) narrates that the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) said as  follows: Verily Allah shall send to this Ummah, at the extremity of each Hijrah century, a person who will renew its din (i.e., religion) for it.”
Most of the eminent muhaddithin (masters of the science of hadith) have interpreted the word “extremity” as implying the concluding part of each part of Hijrah century, i.e., the concerned personality should be born towards the end of the Hijrah of each century. They conclude, furthermore: (i) that he should be well-versed in all the outer as well as the inner religious sciences; (ii) that a large body of people should derive abundant benefits from his teachings, writings, and preaching; (iii) that he should actively devote himself to the revival of the Prophet’s sunnah (pattern of conduct) among people and elimination of “bid’at” (novel practices deviating from those approved and adopted by the Prophet (P.B.U.H) himself); and finally, (iv) that he should have an established renown for scholarship and erudition, and for having conferred religious benefits on the people in general belonging to the end of one century and the beginning of the next. Anyone not fulfilling these conditions would not qualify to be called a “Mujjadad”. 
In the light of this Hadith if we see the years of birth of the greatest Sufi saints:
a) Hazrat Ghaus-e-Azam Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani of Baghdad born in 471 A.H (After Hijrah), died 562 A.H.
b) Hazrat Shaikh Ahmad Sirhandi, alias Mujjadad Alf-e-Sani born in 971 A.H, died 1034 A.H.
c) Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah of Golra Sharif born in 1275 A.H., died 1356 A.H.
All these Sufi saints were born at the extremity of each Hijra’s year. On that account too, Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah can be clearly entitled as a person who renewed the religion Islam, i.e. Mujjadad.
Portents Heralding Hazrat’s Arrival
Predictions about Hazrat’s birth had been current in his family circles well before his actual arrival on the scene. Further more an aged Majzub (A dervish “absorbed” in ecstasy) had come and stayed in the khankah of Golra a few days before Hazrat’s birth and often talked about of being blessed soon with the sight of an approved one of Allah Almighty. When Hazrat was born, he visited the outer Veranda of the family residence; called for Hazrat who was newly born, kissed his hands and feet, and then left the place and was never seen again.
Early Childhood

Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) narrated himself that during his childhood, he used to feel uncomfortable in populated areas and found deserted places providing much serenity. Quite often, he said, he used to quietly leave the house at night after everyone else had gone to bed, and to spend much of the night wandering among the nearly bushes, trees and ravines. As he grew, he said, he started experiencing a feeling of such unusual heat within his body that he was sometimes compelled, even on cold winter nights, to bathe in the ice-cold canal water out in the open and also to rub pieces of it on his body. When he left his room late at night after finishing his studies, he used to experience the same kind of comfort from contact with the cold mountain air that a thirsty person normally derives from cool water at the height of summer.

Early Education
Hazrat received his early education of the Holy Quran at the Khankah and was given classes in Urdu and Persian in the local Madressah. Allah blessed Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) with tremendous mind abilities. Being very young, he had to be carried to and from the school by a domestic servant. The same was done at the time of final examination, which was held in Rawalpindi, a few miles away. The examiner put the first question to Hazrat, which was answered correctly by him. Seeing that so very young a child had given a correct answer to his questions, the examiner concluded that the concerned teacher was providing really good education to his students and decided to promote the entire class.
Hazrat (R.A) had such a phenomenal memory that he could memorize his daily lessons of Quran immediately after reading. As soon as Hazrat completed his oral reading of Quran, the entire Holy Book became embedded in his memory without any conscious effort by him towards that end. Once Hazrat’s teacher asked him to memorize a portion of a religious book which had become badly moth-eaten with the passage of time. Hazrat pointed out that the relevant portion of the book had been almost completely destroyed due to worn-out condition of those pages, and it was impossible to read. The teacher refused to accept any apologies and insisted on his order and warned Hazrat of the punishment if it was not done. The next day, Hazrat, went out and sat under the shadow of the tree where he usually sat for studying purpose. He tried to read the misprinted lines but in vain. Finally he looked heavenwards fervently implored Allah Almighty to let him know the contents of the passage so as to save him from the teacher’s punishment. Suddenly a greenish writing appeared among the leaves of the tree, and after remaining there long enough for Hazrat to commit it to memory, vanished as suddenly as it had appeared.
Hazrat immediately went back to his teacher and read the passage out to him. There upon the teacher sought out an un-mutilated addition of the book in question from Rawalpindi, and was astonished to find that the related passage tallied completely with that with Hazrat had read out to him.
Sometime after this incident, Hazrat’s teacher Maulvi Ghulam Muhyuddin advised Hazrat Nazruddin Alias Ajji Sahib (Hazrat’s father) and Hazrat Fazal din (Hazrat’s Uncle) to place the young Meher Ali under the care of a more learned teacher as he had done whatever he could do in educating him as much as he could do and that he deserved to be trained by a truly distinguished teacher. Accepting this advice, Hazrat was admitted to the Madressah of an eminent scholar Maulana Muhammad Shafi Qureshi in the village Bhui, near Hasan-Abdal.
Hazrat completed his intermediate level religious education here. His stay in this Madressah was for 2 –21/2  years.
Completing the intermediate level education, Hazrat’s return home coincided with the annual festival of Eid-ul-Fitr. After the Eid prayers Hazrat decided to proceed for higher studies and for this he chose Angah, which is about 100 miles away from Sargodha. Hazrat’s teacher at that Madressah was Maulvi Sultan Mehmood.
Hazrat’s visit to Sial Sharif
Hazrat’s teacher at Angah was a disciple of Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin Chishti of Sial Sharif, District Sargodha. Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin was a great Sufi saint of  his time. Hazrat Sahib (Hazrat’s Pir Meher Ali Shah’s (R.A) teacher) used to visit to Sial Sharif  to pay his regards to his venerable Murshid and  Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah used to accompany him during these visits. This eventually resulted in Hazrat Syedna Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) also becoming a disciple of Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin (R.A).
Quest for higher education
After completing his education at Angah at the age of 15 years, he decided to continue further studies in the United Provinces of India (U.P). Therefore, Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib, in 1290 A.H set out his quest for higher education, to different parts of India such as Lucknow, Deoband, Rampur, Kanpur, Aligarh, Delhi and Saharanpur , which were the then known major centers of religious education. Hazrat got education from the best of the religious scholars of that time.
Hazrat’s stay at Aligarh at the Madressah of Maulana Lutfullah of Aligarh was 21/2 years. During this period of time, he earned the admiration and the respect of both his teachers and his classmates because of his ability, beauty of character and explanatory conduct.
Appreciation of a European examiner
During Hazrat’s stay at Aligarh, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the celebrated educationist of India and the founder of the Aligarh Muslim University, had drawn up a plan for the reform of the Arabic religious madressahs found lagging behind in quality education and thereby decided to close them down. The money was to be diverted to the college at Aligarh. As a part of this project, Sir Syed suggested to Maulana Lutfullah to conduct an annual examination at his madressah, with a view to both testing the standard of education and providing an incentive for hard work among the students. Since a large number of students at the madressah were Punjabis or Pathans, and were not well versed in writing , Maulana Sahib was somewhat reluctant to accept this suggestion. Hazrat however, assured him that he and his schoolmates were ready to undergo any type of test, oral or written, and that he should therefore accept Sir Syed’s suggestion without hesitation. So Maulana Lutfullah gained some confidence and accepted the proposal.
So for this purpose a high-class scholar from Europe was invited to Aligarh by Sir Syed  to give the required examination. A day before the exam, the Maulana himself gave a proficiency test to the students in Euclidean Geometry in order to judge their ability in that subject. In his answer to the question prescribed in the test paper ,Hazrat first wrote down the solution that was contained in the Euclidean text. He followed this up by raising certain objections and reservations about the solution given in the text, and answering the same objections himself. Maulana Sahib was so deeply impressed by this display of insight and perspicacity that he placed Hazrat’s answer sheet in an envelope, sealed it and sent it to the European examiner who had also arrived in Aligarh. The next day, all the students kept waiting for the examiner to come but he didn’t show up. When Sir Syed was informed of this, he intimated that the examiner had gone back home during the night, and had left a note to effect that he found himself unable to give a test to students who had the ability to raise objections to the views of Euclid. Maulvi Sahib was very happy that his madressah had been saved from possible closure because of Hazrat’s brilliant academic performance.
Combination of strong physique with mental and spiritual excellence
Allah Almighty blessed Hazrat with a strong physique and a highly cognitive and spiritual excellence. Most of his time was spent in the pursuit of education, and he took no exercise other than horse riding. His health remained as strong as those taking regular exercise, even at the advanced age of 60 years.
Usually Hazrat’s class fellows used to seek help in their studies from him and Hazrat always helped them out in their problems.
Charity and Munificence
The money, which Hazrat received from home as monthly subsistence, used to be distributed by him among the poor and needy school-mates, with himself either fasting or otherwise going without food. In moments of extreme hunger, he collected and ate crumbs left over by fellow students. These expressions of charity, self sacrifice, and voluntary hardships deeply impressed everyone around and many of them became his admirers and devotees.
Aversion to sport and petty amusements
Due to his serious and sober outlook on life, Hazrat never developed any real interest in sport or petty entertainment. Fairs and exhibitions of different kinds held in Saharanpur from time to time had no attraction for him. These included a major fair held in that city on the eve of British Viceroy’s visit there. Hazrat did, however enjoy listening to good devotional music, which struck a responsive chord in his spiritually inclined heart.
Return home
After completing his religious education from Aligarh, Hazrat Syedna Meher Ali Shah Sahib (R.A) was awarded certificates by Maulana Lutfullah of Aligarh. These certificates certified the completion in the following branches of Islamic learning, along with permission to teach these subjects to others and to otherwise make use of them for scholastic and exposition purposes as and when required.
i)                  The Holy Quran, its translation and commentaries
ii)                  All the authentic compilations of the Prophet’s Hadith, including the Sihah Sittah
Marriage
When Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah returned home after completing his studies, his marriage took place with the daughter of Syed Charagh Ali Shah who belonged to his respected mother’s family living in Hasan-Abdal Town, a few miles away from Golra.
Passing away of Ajji Sahib (R.A) and Hazrat Fazal Din (R.A)
Soon after Hazrat’s marriage Hazrat Fazal Din Shah, the maternal uncle of Hazrat’s father Ajji sahib and Hazrat’s Murshid in the Qadriyah School, passed away in 1311 A.H (1892 A.D) and so did Hazrat Ajji sahib (Hazrat’s father) himself in 1323 A.H (1904-05 A.D).
Hazrat’s (R.A) singular eminence as a teacher
After the death of his father and his uncle, Hazrat (R.A) commenced his teachings. The light of Hazrat’s teaching started to enlighten the hearts of the people all over the world.
Construction of teaching center at Golra Sharif
It was in Hazrat’s nature to take special care for the well-being and comfort of guests. Accordingly, when he was divinely assigned the task of providing spiritual and religious guidance to others, he is reported to have prayed to Allah as follows: 
“My Lord! Be Gracious enough to provide for the comfort and peace of mind of those whom thou directest to come to me for guidance, by Thy own Grace. For I shall have neither the resources nor the time for this purpose.”
When, therefore, he started his mission of guidance on return from Hajj in 1308 A.H., provision for everything needed for the successful conduct of this mission was made by Allah Himself by His sheer grace and mercy. Accomplished scholars, for example, were spontaneously attracted to Golra Sharif to assist Hazrat in the task of teaching, and became his life-long devotees and associates. Maulana Muhammad Ghazi arrived here after resigning his teaching job in Madressah-e-Saulatiyah at Makkah Mukarramah, and assumed the office of Principal of Jamia-e-Ghausia at Golra. The subjects of Quranic commentary, hadith, and tasawwuf (Islamic mysticism) were taught by Hazrat himself. Qari Abdul Rahman of Jawnpur (U.P., India), an acknowledged master of the art of tajvid (Quranic recitation), joined the Jamia to take charge, besides tajvid, of Hazrat’s correspondence, and of leading the five congregational prayers in the mosque at Golra Sharif. He pioneered the teaching of “qirat” (recital) in this region. Maulvi Muhammad Ali of Bandi, Maulvi Mir Abdullah of Makkan, Syed Chanan Shah of Jabah, and Mahboob Alam of Hazara – all these gentlemen were among the first to join this institution of religious and spiritual education, and took up different tasks in connection with its development and running. Besides performing their teachings and duties, they worked along with their students as manual labour in the construction of the mosque and other buildings of the complex. They also helped in digging a deep well in the stony soil to serve as a source of water supply for drinking as well as construction purposes.
The first structures to be built were: a room to serve as Hazrat’s living quarters; another room for the storage of necessaries for the langar (free kitchen); and two rooms for the use of dervishes and guests. Some other huts were added later for the use of students and their teachers. With these inputs, the first part of this stone, clay and mortar structure was completed in 1896-97. (lately, a second storey has been added to it, and a high minaret built on its south-western corner). Between 1903 and 1907, a large guest-house, and buildings for the madressah and library, were constructed and donated to the shrine by Haji Karim Bukhsh and Haji Abdul Rahim, two devotees of Hazrat from Peshawar. The guest-house comprised about forty (40) rooms for visitors, flanked by verandahs and corridors, and a spacious hall to serve as Majlis-khana. (assembly room).
With the passage of time, even this spacious accommodation fell short of the needs of the ever-increasing number of visiting devotees, with the result that three more guest-houses, a very large Majlis khana and several other buildings were constructed during the period of Hazrat Babuji (R.A), Hazrat’s illustrious son and successor. The expansion process continued after the death of Hazrat Babuji in 1974, and the shrine complex has now attained the position of a magnificent landmark in the outskirts of Pakistan’s Federal Capital, Islamabad. according to a conservative estimate, the three day annual Urs of Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam (R.A), celebrated in Golra Sharif from 9 to 11 Rabi-us-Saani, attracts a total attendance of well over 100,000 persons. Other similar functions, such as the Urs of Hazrat himself and of Hazrat Babuji and the like, attract heavy crowds as well. The birthday of the Holy Prophet – Milad-un-Nabi is celebrated with special veneration and fervour on the night between 11 and 12 Rabi-ul-Awwal every year, and attracts a gathering that runs into thousands. The daily attendance of devotees at the shrine, and in particular the number of participants in the congregation prayers every Friday, has also steadily increased over time. The buildings and allied facilities at the shrine, including the size and scope of the langar have been expanded to cater for these growing needs.
Enrollment of some well-known scholars, speakers, and writers as Hazrat’s devotees
In those early years, a number of renowned “khatibs” (speakers, preachers) and distinguished men of letters became Hazrat’s devotees and after receiving instruction and grooming from Hazrat, committed themselves to the propagation the ahl-e-sunnat point of view. Those deserving special mention among this group were: Maulana Muhammad Charagh of Chakori; Mufti Ghulam Murtaza, head of Anjuman-e-Naumanaia, Lahore; Maulvi Ahmad Din of Darabi, Chakwal; Khan Bahadur Maulvi Muharram Ali Chishti, editor Rafiq-e-Hind newspaper, Lahore; Khan Bahadur Qazi Sirajuddin, Advocate and editor, “Chawdhavin Sadi Newspaper”, Rawalpindi; and Qazi Qudratullah of Qazi Khel, Peshawar. These devoted men rendered yeoman services in fighting such movements as the Wahabi, the Chakralvi, the Qadyani, and the Rafidi, and the “naturalists” and agnostics inspired by irreligious Western thought.
In the field of suluk (the sufi path), many scions of noted sufi families, including those connected with mashaikh of his own Silsila (spiritual chain), became Hazrat’s disciples. These included, Diwan Ghayathuddin of Ajmer Sharif, Diwan Said Muhammad of Pakpattan Sharif, and Khwaja Hasan Nizami of Delhi. The last named, who was connected with the shrine of Hazrat Nizamuddin Awlia (R.A), was an eminent man of letters, and his beneficiaries belonged to such remote places as Burma and Malaya (which now span Malaysia and Indonesia).
The initial sitting place of Hazrat
In that early period, Hazrat used to hold his sittings on a stone slab of the shape and size of a prayer mat, which was placed outside his hujrah (prayer cell) under the shade of trees. After completion his morning prayers and recitations, he used to sit on this slab, while those wishing to seek his prayers sat on palm-leaf mats spread around the slab. The slab was also used for zikr sessions, as well as for qawwali sittings. Some of Hazrat’s speech, as well as for qawwali sittings. Some of Hazrat’s epoch-making books, e.g., “Tahqiq-ul-Haq” on the subject of Wahdat-ul-Wajood, and “Shams-ul-Hidayah” and “Saif-e-Chishtiyai” on the Qadyani movement, were written by Hazrat while sitting on this slab. Finally, lessons from the “Mathnavi” of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A) and the “Futuhat-e-Makkiyah” and the “Fusus-ul-Hikam” of Shaikh-e-Akbar Muhyuddin Ibn-ul-Arabi (R.A) were also imparted to some highly distinguished pupils at this very spot. Many of those eminent personalities are now buried around this place.
 
Uniqueness of Hazrat’s style of teaching and guidance
To start with, about 50 students attended his class, which were held in Hazrat’s ancestral mosque at Golra. These included some persons who had already completed the elementary stages of the curriculum else where. They acquired advanced education from Hazrat, and taught the elementary stages to the beginners in the class. Hazrat had been blessed by Allah Almighty with all the attributes of a high class teacher. He possessed the rare gift of explaining the most complex issues in a very easy and convenient manner. With the help of this God-given teaching ability, Hazrat converted many seemingly dull students into noted scholars.
Seekers of spiritual knowledge and cognition came to Golra from far and near to enlighten their hearts. The ambitions of these thirsty souls were fulfilled in different ways and degrees, depending upon their respective capabilities to imbibe and absorb knowledge. Some attained their goals sooner than the others. The case of two such persons are mentioned below to illustrate this point:
(a)    Faqir Muhammad Amir of Kot Atal
Faqir Muhammad Amir of Kot Atal (District Dera Ismail Khan ) was an accomplished dervish. Belonging originally to Jhelum, he received his early education in Dera Ismail Khan and after completing it became a disciple of Khwaja Muhammad Usman Naqshbandi of Musa Zai. Making steady spiritual progress, he eventually became the Khalifa (deputy) of his Shaikh and carried his message far and wide. In the final stages of his progress, he reached a point which conflicted with the maslak (method) of his Shaikh. While the Shaikh was an adherent of Naqshbandia school, and was therefore a believer in Wahdat-ush-Shahud (Unity of Perception), Muhammad Amir started being involuntarily attracted to Wahdat-ul-wajood instead. The Shaikh first tried to bring him back to his point of view through admonition and prayer, but despairing of the success of his efforts declared him to be misguided and lost beyond redemption. On his part, Muhammad Amir found himself caught in a situation beyond his own control. He therefore set out in search of some means to get out of that plight.
At some stage, Faqir Muhammad Amir came to know about Hazrat, and betook himself to Golra Sharif to meet him. He first went to Hazrat Baba Fazl Din (R.A), who was then the reigning head of the shrine, but did not state the purpose of his visit. From there he proceeded to see Hazrat, whom he found engaged in conversation with his father, Hazrat Ajji Sahib. On seeing Muhammad Amir, Hazrat quietly handed to him the book Kashkol-e-Kalimi (The Begging Bowl of Musa, Kalimullah) which he was then holding in his hands, without saying anything else. As Faqir Sahib glanced through the book, his problem was instantly solved by its contents. This greatly elated him, and he requested Hazrat to accept him as his disciple. Hazrat hesitated first, but on his insistence agreed to do so. Besides prescribing the required recitations, Hazrat exhorted him never to show disrespect to his Murshid, Khwaja Muhammad Usman Naqshbandi, to visit the latter at least once a year to pay his regards to him, and, after the latter’s passing away, to make it a point to attend his Urs. The immediate aftermath of this episode was that Faqir Muhammad Amir lost many of his erstwhile followers, while his Murshid was furious at his conduct. He patiently endured all this for about a year, and then returned to Golra Sharif to pay his respects to Hazrat. Hazrat accorded him permission to enroll disciples on his own, as a result of which his circle of disciples expanded quickly by the grace of Allah. He used later to accompany Hazrat on latter’s annual visit to Pakpattan Sharif in connection with Urs of Hazrat Baba Fariduddin Ganjshakar (R.A).

The published collection of Hazrat’s letters, titled Maktubat-e-Tayyibat” contains few letters written to Hazrat by the Faqir Sahib of Atal, and Hazrat’s replies thereto, which provide an inkling of the distinguished spiritual station which the Faqir Sahib was able to attain under Hazrat’s guidance. In one of these letters, the Faqir Sahib sought Hazrat’s guidance as to whether, in the spiritual state that he had reached by then, he should focus his attention on the sifat (Attributes) that were flowing from the Divine Being or on the Being Himself, so as to escape the feeling of uncertainty and ambivalence that he found himself in.

In other words, he advised the questioner to focus his attention single mindedly on the Supreme Being and not on His “Attributes”. He also prayed that Allah infuse him with such attention.
In another letter, Faqir Sahib confined to Hazrat that when he attained the spiritual station which he was then in, he was overcome by a conceited feeling that perhaps no one else had attained such a high station ever before. Therefore, a downward process had set in until the previous state had completely gone, and he was reduced to the position of a mere mortal with no special distinction at all. His attention was then diverted to the strict observance of dictates of shariah, rather than to matters of the spirit. Accordingly, he sought Hazrat’s guidance as to what he should do to reduce the balance between secular and spiritual matters.
In his rejoinder, Hazrat re-assured Faqir Sahib that the feeling mentioned by him was nothing unique, but had been experienced by many other eminent men of God as well. It could possibly be due to the fact that every man had a special relationship with his Great Creator, which no other human being shared with him. The Faqir Sahib, he added, should therefore accept his experience as inescapable and should continue his spiritual endeavours as best he could. 
(b)   Baba Ghulam Farid of Batala
A situation more or less similar to that of the Faqir Sahib of Atal was experienced by one Baba Ghulam Farid of Batala. A mason by profession, Baba Ghulam Farid had his first bait (pledge of fidelity) at the hands of Maulvi Muhammad Abdullah Chishti of Talwandi Sharif. After attaining a certain spiritual level, he requested his Shaikh to guide him to the Eternal Light (of Supreme Being). His Shaikh, however, regretted his inability to do so because he himself had not yet attained that stage. Thereupon, Baba Ghulam Farid sought the murshid’s written permission to approach some other man of God for this purpose. The Shaikh gave this permission readily enough, adding that if Baba were to succeed in acquiring elsewhere the blessing he was looking for, he should let his Shaikh also know about it, so that he too could benefit from the same source.
The gesture of Maulvi Muhammad Abdullah Chishti in releasing Baba Ghulam Farid from his discipleship typified his selflessness and generosity of mind. It also accords with a saying of Hazrat Sain Tawwakal Shah (R.A) of Ambala to the effect that if a murid (disciple) happens to attain a spiritual station higher than that of his Pir (spiritual guide), the latter should willingly release him so that he can derive further benefit from any other available source – the ultimate objective being to attain nearness to God from whatever source it could be had. Of course, if the Shaikh himself in a position to guide the murid to the station that he is aspiring to, the latter should not look elsewhere for the purpose under any circumstances.
“Go to Golra if you wish to meet God”
Released from his Shaikh’s discipleship and the accompanying restrictions, Baba Ghulam Farid spent a long time in search of means whereby he could achieve the objective that he had set for himself. His efforts, however, met with no success. At one time, he even thought of killing himself but on further thought gave up the idea and decided to continue his quest. One night, as he was preparing in a mosque in some city, he met a stranger and fell into conversation with him on the subject of communication with God. Thereupon, the stranger said to him: “Go to Golra if you wish to meet God”.
The word “Golra” produced a magnetic effect on Baba Ghulam Farid, and a desire to reach there with minimum delay. He therefore set out by train the very next morning, and on arrival on Golra went straight to the mosque. There he saw Hazrat sitting ready for prayers. To his pleasant surprise, he found Hazrat to be the same person whom he had seen in a dream sometime a go at the shrine of Hazrat Daata Gunj-Bukhsh at Lahore, and to whom Hazrat Daata Sahib had referred his case for spiritual adjudication. He therefore immediately put his case before Hazrat, and beseeched him to solve his problem. Hazrat asked him to meet him after the Zuhr (early afternoon) prayers. When he did so, Hazrat recommended some recitations to him for regular observance. At the same time, he cast an electrifying glance on the Baba, which threw the latter into a state of love-lorn agony and kept him in that state for the whole following night.
Forty days task accomplished in just two days
When Baba Ghulam Farid met Hazrat the next morning, he was in a highly distracted state of mind. Seeing this, Hazrat reminded him of his admonition the previous day to perform the recitations prescribed by him with patience for a few days in order to achieve some progress towards his objective. When Hazrat found such patience to be beyond Ghulam Farid, he asked him to try and observe a fast for forty days. This the Baba readily agreed to do.
After Baba had fasted only two days however, Hazrat sent for him, and, felicitating him, told him that his task had been accomplished and that he should break his fast in his presence. As he did so, Hazrat also asked Baba to make sincere efforts to guard and preserve the state of honour that had been providentially conferred upon him.
The life and state of Baba Ghulam Farid were now completely transformed. He could see with his “spiritual eyes” even with his face covered, and used to go round without uncovering himself or physically looking around. During Hazrat’s daily sessions, he used to sit humbly at the far end with an outer garment covering his head and body, apparently listening to very little but inwardly imbibing all that Hazrat spoke about. On one occasion, for example, as Hazrat was explaining to the students a portion of the Masnavi of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi pertaining to the concept of tajaddud-e-amthal (renewal of images and likenesses), Baba Ghulam Farid saw the meaning of the concept translated into a reality in physical terms. He saw: 1. milk being distributed to the people present in the session, and 2. many “forms” emanating from one huge “form”. These visions denoted symbolically 1. knowledge and cognition being disseminated by Hazrat to others; and 2. myriad “forms” growing out of the “Formless Whole”, i.e., the Supreme Being, thereby exemplifying Wahdat-ul-wajood.
Hajj journey of Baba Ghulam Farid
After obtaining Hazrat’s permission, Baba Ghulam Farid proceeded to the Hijaz for Hajj. Hazrat directed him to perform certain recitations in front of the Holy Kaabah in Makkah and in front of the Holy Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) tomb in Madina Munawwara. On return from Hajj, Baba told some fellow disciples that wherever he went during the sacred journey, he had a distinct feeling that Hazrat was constantly by his. In Madina, in fact, Hazrat appeared to him in person when he was si5tting in meditation before the Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) tomb, and enquired about his welfare.
Decline in Baba’s spiritual station
Thanks to Hazrat’s gracious attention, Baba Ghulam Farid was able to attain quite an advanced spiritual station. Unfortunately, however, he happened to spend a few days in his hometown in the company of cunning so-called Sufi who claimed to be spiritually closed to Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam. Since he had not sought the permission of Hazrat to adopt the company of the hypocritical Sufi, an immediate decline occurred in his spiritual state. As Shaikh, Hazrat was exceptionally jealous of the loyalties of his disciples, with the result that anyone of them who diverted his deferential attention to some one other than Hazrat experienced an immediate setback in his spiritual state. The same happened to Baba Ghulam Farid. As soon as the unfortunate reality dawned upon him, Baba wasted no time in setting out for Golra in order to tender his apologies to Hazrat. Despite the most earnest entreaties and sincere regrets, however, he failed to regain Hazrat’s erstwhile confidence and grace. On the intercession of Hazrat Babuji, the only relief that was forth coming was that the old condition did came back to him while he was in Golra but deserted him when he went out of it. When Hazrat’s attention was respectfully drawn to Baba miserable plight he responded in these words: “This man had been granted by Allah, with virtually no effort on his part, a spiritual station which had been granted to as eminent a man of God as Hazrat Bayazid of Bastam after forty years of spiritual vigils and endeavour. He had, however shown no appreciation of this unprecedented divine favour and had not tried to guard his state as it should have been guarded. He should therefore spend the rest of his time waiting and hoping for Allah’s special mercy and grace which alone could now redeem him from the state into which he had fallen”.
Despite his decline from the higher spiritual state, Baba continued to be blessed with the elementary states such as the company of pious souls and angels etc.
Baba’s meeting with Hazrat Khizar (R.A)
Hazrat Babuji used to recall when Baba Ghulam Farid came to him and at high noon and a hot summer day and informed him that Hazrat had directed him to go to Rawalpindi that very moment. Declining Hazrat Babuji’s suggestions to him to either go in the afternoon at a cooler time, or to go on horse-back or by train, Baba decided to walk all the way to Rawalpindi then and there. He told Babuji later that on his way, he was beckoned by a man who was standing in a cultivated field. When he went to him, the latter talked to him for a few minutes, recited some verses of the Mathnavi of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi R.A, asked him to act upon what was stated in those verses, and suddenly disappeared. It later transpired that the person in question was Hazrat Khizar, who is believed by Muslims to have been granted eternal life by Allah, and who, according to an episode described in the Holy Quran (XVIII, 60-82), was granted special knowledge “from God’s own presence”, which is different from (but no necessarily superior to) the knowledge grated by Allah to His prophets and apostles.
When Hazrat passed away in 1937, Baba Ghulam Farid arrived in Golra three days after the event. On enquiry as to how he had come to know about Hazrat passing away, he indicated that he had, after ‘asr prayers’ on the previous afternoon, clairvoyantly seen thousands of people assembled in the ground of Golra, and even larger numbers of celestial beings assembled in the atmosphere around the spot, all of whom appeared to be waiting for something. He had, therefore, concluded that something unusually momentous had happened in Golra, and had immediately set out in that direction. In fact, what Baba had seen with his spiritual eyes was the huge multitude (of both human and celestial beings) that had assembled to join the funeral prayers of Hazrat (R.A).
(c)    Qazi Faiz Alam
Qazi Faiz Alam, an old pupil and personal attendant of Hazrat who accompanied Hazrat on his visits to Lahore and elsewhere for spiritual exercises and contemplation, had an experience similar to that gone through Baba Ghulam Farid. An old teacher in his village who was also related to him and had permission from his Murshid to enroll disciples in the Naqshbandia school, once called Faiz Alam away from Golra where he was then engaged in acquiring education as well as initiation from Hazrat. He suggested to Faiz Alam that since he had grown old and had no offspring of his own, the latter should take charge of his shrine and should succeed after his death. He reassured the young man that Hazrat would still continue to be his Shaikh, and that all that he needed to do was to perform certain recitations to be recommended by him. In the given situation, Faiz Alam agreed to his old teacher’s suggestion. As soon as he did so, and started reciting what the latter told him, the entire spiritual progress that he had made under Hazrat’s guidance was instantly lost. When he met Hazrat in Golra after two years or so later, he lamented to grave lapse committed by him, and expressed a veiled desire for the restoration of his erstwhile state under which he had been blessed with the capacity to divine secrets of all kinds and other spiritual attributes. This, however, did not happen, and he was left to regret his misfortune for the rest of his life.
 
The love of Allah was inmate in Hazrat’s temperament from the beginning, and music produced an electrifying effect on him. He had a good voice himself and enjoyed listening to good musical voice in others. His general manner of conversation was so sweet and sincere as to inspire feelings of tenderness in others. In those early years, he often used to go out in uninhabited, quiet places, and recited divine love songs aloud to soothe himself. People of the neighbourhood, including some of his class mates listened to these songs avidly but furtively. 
Zikr-o-Fikr (remembrance and meditation) of Hazrat (R.A)
Hazrat used to hold his sittings on a stone slab of the shape of a prayer mat, which was placed outside his hujrah (prayer cell) under the shade of trees. Hazrat often spent whole nights (including the long and exceedingly cold winter ones of this mountainous region) with only one blanket to cover him. He sat here completely motionless in single-minded contemplation until the break of dawn, when he rose to prepare for his morning prayers. The warmth of the love of Allah so permeated his body that even on the cold nights, he used to dip himself in the near-frozen water of the pond in the valley to soothe his nerves. Most often he used to perform the morning prayers with the ablutions of the preceding night’s Isha prayers, thus keeping awake the whole night through.
These prolonged vigils and constant sitting posture had in course of time the effect of benumbing Hazrat’s legs and thighs, severely restricting his movements. The local physician prescribed massage and horse-riding during the afternoons in order to obtain relief. This eventually helped in getting over the distressing condition, with the result that an afternoon spell of riding became an integral part of Hazrat’s daily schedule until quite late in life.
Ishq-e-Rasool (love of Holy Prophet) (P.B.U.H) 

Ishq-e-Rasool (P.B.U.H) i.e. love of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) is a basic element of Awlia-Allah. Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) was indeed a figure of Ishq-e-Rasool (P.B.U.H). If anyone came to seek prayers from Hazrat on acquiring any wazifa, Hazrat always advised to recite Darud Sharif, as it is the key to the love of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) and to every problem.

During a journey from Makkah to Madina (eternal resting place of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)  after the main Hajj ceremonies, an incident happened that can best be described in his own words reproduced below:
“While passing through the Wadi-e-Hamra on the road to Madina Munawwara, it so happened that, because of the threat of an attack on our caravan by robbers (which used to be a common occurrence in those days), I happened, while offering my Isha prayers, to default in carrying out the Sunnats (the part of the prayers in emulation of the Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) ritual practice). I went to sleep at one end of the caravan. Maulvi Muhammad Ghazi, who had left his teaching activities in the Madressah-e-Saulatiyah was accompanying me during this journey. During the sleep I saw in a dream that while I was sitting in a mosque in a praying posture, the Holy Prophet graced the place by his Holy presence, giving me new life with the sight of his perfect beauty. Coming near me, he remarked that a member of his progeny (such as myself) should not default in performance of his Sunnat. There upon I immediately caught hold of the silk soft shins of the Prophet (P.B.U.H) in extreme humility, and started reciting the words: “Blessings and salutations be upon you, O Messenger of Allah”. Not fully sure at first that I was in fact in the presence of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) himself, I asked him about his identity three times. Instead of answering my question directly, however, he only repeated his earlier admonishing about defaulting about the performance of the Sunnat prayers. For this, as well as from the fact that he did not forbid me from addressing him in the second person as “O Messenger of Allah”, I inferred that my august addressee was indeed the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) himself. Another indication about the identity of the personality facing me was the incomparable beauty of his face, indeed his whole person— a beauty that neither tongue nor the pen adequately described, and could belong only to handsomest and the purest human being that had ever lived or will ever live again”.

The sentiments generated by the dream are reflected to some extent in the Punjabi language Naat (Eulogy of the Holy Prophet) that Hazrat composed during rest of the same journey between the valley of Hamra and Madina Munawwara. It is probably with reference to sentiments such as these that in his book Futuhat-us-Samadiyyah (Divine Revelations), Hazrat has written as follows: “One even now comes across persons belonging to the noble group on whom the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) bestows his latent (spiritual) bounties, either on the departure at the end of this stay in Madina or at anytime during their stay there, the like of which no eye has ever seen and no ear heard of”.

 

Pir Mehr Ali shah and Ghaus e Azam

 
Hazrat Syedna Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) had boundless love for Hazrat Ghaus-e-Azam (R.A). Hazrat (R.A) was a descendent, on his father’s side, of Hazrat Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani (R.A) in the 25th generation. On the side of his mother, he descended from Hazrat Ghaus-e-Azam (R.A) in the 24th generation. Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) was in bai’at with Hazrat’s maternal uncle, Hazrat Fazl Din Shah (R.A) in the Qadriyah Silsila (spiritual school). Hazrat Syedna Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) was also one of the most illustrious of the latter’s spiritual beneficiaries especially in the Indo-Pak subcontinent.
Hazrat Ghaus-e-Azam Abdul Qadir Jilani stands out as the great guide who imparted a new life to the Islamic faith. Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam (R.A) is universally accepted as the greatest of all Awlia- Allah ( friends of Allah ), and occupies the place of surpassing spiritual eminence that has not been vouchsafed to any other personality in the entire Islamic Ummah.  
“Muhyuddin”
He was born in 471 A.H (After Hijrah ), and passed away in 562 A.H at the age of 91. Hazrat Abdul Qadir Jilani is also known as Muhyuddin (Life Giver of the Din – Islam ). He himself described the brief background to this development as follows :

“One Friday in 511 A.H, when I was returning bare footed to Baghdad from a journey, I came across an extremely weak and emaciated man who looked really ill. The man greeted me by name and requested me to help him get up. When I did so, his condition instantly underwent a dramatic change, and he started looking like a completely healthy person. Seeing my expression of surprise at the sudden transformation he explained that he was in fact a personification of the Din –Islam that was on the verge of Death but had been given a new life by me. He then called me by the title of “ Muhyuddin”. When I entered the premises of the Jamia mosque of Baghdad , an unknown person , seeing me bare footed , gave me his own shoes to wear and also addressed me by the title ‘Muhyuddin’. At the end of the Friday prayers, the entire congregation rushed towards me , kissing my hands and calling me by the same title, even though no one had used this title for me ever before”.

An Incident of Qaseeda-e-Ghausia
Hazrat (R.A) had intense love and reverence for Hazrat Ghaus-e-Azam (R.A) and called him his Pir (spiritual guide).

During Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah’s (R.A) stay in Angah in a madressah, an amil (a person indulging  in charms and incantations) came in the mosque. He was popular for his exploitations of the Qaseeda-e-Ghausia to good effect as a vehicle for his activities. This had earned him a modicum of esteem in the area, and people used to rise and kiss his hands as a mark of respect whenever he came to any assemblage. One day this man came to the mosque at Angah, and everyone rose to him as usual. Hazrat, however, remained seated. The amil was so annoyed by Hazrat’s behaviour that he threatened to recite the Qaseeda unless “ the boy” (Hazrat) stood up to greet him. Unmoved by this threat Hazrat said: “You read the Qaseeda and I shall call its author (i.e. Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam) himself. These words produced an inspiring effect on the amil, who immediately apologized to Hazrat.

Refusal to participate in the Delhi Darbar in the Coronation of Henry VIII
Once, when Hazrat (R.A) was asked to attend the Royal Coronation of the King Henry VIII, in Delhi and Hazrat (R.A) was also invited to attend the Darbar and to offer a salaam and pray for the King. On Hazrat’s (R.A) refusal to attend the Royal procession on the account that dervishes do not attend Kings’ Darbars. The Government decided to take action against the refusal of Hazrat. Around this time a Muslim government official met Hazrat who had never met him before but was nevertheless his devotee at heart. He informed Hazrat that the Government had decided to deport Hazrat from the sub-continent. Hazrat smiled at this disclosure and said: “The Government which is planning to deport me does not seem to know what Providence plans to do with itself”. 
Not long after this, the British Government got involved in a life-death struggle with Germany as a result of the World War I of 1914-1918, and the government file pertaining to Hazrat’s proposed deportation had to be put in indefinite cold storage.
 

Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah and Hazrat Shamsuddin of Sial Sharif (R.A)

 
 
As mentioned earlier, Hazrat (R.A) used to occasionally visit Sial Sharif in the company of his teacher Maulvi Sultan Mehmood, to pay his respects to the latter’s Murshid (spiritual guide), Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin used to treat Hazrat (R.A) with special affection during these short visits. Due to this Hazrat decided to become a Murid (Disciple) of Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin. Soon after his return from Aligarh and Saharanpur, having completed his education, he traveled to Sial Sharif and took the Bait (pledge of Discipleship) at the hands of Hazrat Khwaja in the Chishtia Nizamiyah in the school of Tasawwuf. Although Hazrat was already a disciple of Hazrat Fazal din in the Qadriyah School, but preferred Silsila-e-Chishtia.
Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin (R.A) was born at Sial Sharif in 1214 A.H (1795-96 A.D) and passed away at the same place on 24th Safar, 1300 A.H (1881- 82 A.D) at the age of 86. Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin of Sial Sharif, besides being a highly learned scholar, was also a spiritual guide of eminent standing. Hazrat (R.A) used to pay high tributes to the greatness of his Shaikh and regarded him as a Mujjadid of the science of Tareeqat (Spiritual Faith).
Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin (R.A) ranked among the leading Khulafa (Deputies) of Hazrat Muhammad Sulaiman (R.A), the renowned Chishti saint of Taunsa Sharif in Dera Ghazi Khan District of the Punjab.
Grant of Khilafat (deputyship) to Hazrat by his Murshid
Cognizant of Hazrat’s special scholarly and spiritual attributes, his Murshid, Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin, had granted him a blanket permission for the performance of all the prescribed spiritual exercises and recitations, and for the enrollment of others as his disciples.
Hazrat Khwaja Sahib (R.A) gave particular attention to his spiritual training and advancement, and accorded him a treatment distinct from the common of his disciples and pupils. As a token of his special affection for Hazrat, he once arranged for Hazrat to take the pledge (bait) from a dervish in Sial Sharif, even though it was against established tradition for a disciple of Sial Sharif Shrine (i.e. Hazrat) to adopt others as disciple of his own while staying in the native place of his Murshid.
Hazrat’s devotion to his Murshid (Shaikh)
Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib (R.A) was exceedingly devoted to his Sheikh (spiritual guide), Khwaja Shams-ud-din (R.A) of Sial Sharif. Hazrat explain himself that:
“The generosity of our Khwaja Shams-ud-din was such that anyone coming to him with a loving heart for guidance was blessed by him beyond his deserts. Who ever saw him once longed to see him again and again. During my stay in Makkah in connection with Hajj in 1307 A.H, Hazrat Haji Imdad-ullah Muhajir of Makkah voluntarily wished to confer spiritual bounty on me as a gesture of grace. My inner feeling, however, was that none else could match the spiritual benefits that I had already received from my own Shaikh. On Haji Sahib’s insistence I did concede to accept his kind offer, but made it clear to him that I would regard it as coming in fact from my own Shaikh. Appreciating this, Haji Sahib granted permission to me to enroll disciples on his behalf in the Chishtia Sabriya School, as and when someone approached me for this purpose”.
Impact of Shaikh’s demise on Hazrat
The passing away of Hazrat Khwaja (R.A) caused immense emotional distress and intense sorrow to him. This led him, inline with the established Sufi practice, to seek “new pastures” for spiritual growth. He therefore temporarily gave up the teaching of formal religious sciences, and resorted to travels and wanderings in deserted places and lengthy spells of self-imposed seclusion for contemplation, prayers and spiritual exercises.   
Since Hazrat Khwaja (R.A) of Sial Sharif had passed away only a short time earlier, Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib (R.A) was found in a state of extreme grief and emotional disquiet, and frequently in tears. In this condition, Hazrat could not carry on the teaching and thus the job was taken temporarily by the senior students until Hazrat was ready to take charge once again. This state of affairs continued for sometime and was followed by a long period of travels by Hazrat outside Golra. During this period, Hazrat used to remain away from home for months on without anyone knowing about his whereabouts. He would then suddenly come back, but after a brief stay would leave again for some other unknown destination, sometimes alone and at other times with a companion. In the beginning, these travels were confined to Lahore and some other cities of the Punjab province. Later, however, Hazrat directed his attention to places outside Punjab, and his first visit was then made to the Holy shrine of Hazrat Khwaja Moin-ud-Din Chishti (R.A) at Ajmer Sharif in Rajputana area of India. After a few days stay there, and in response to some transcendental indication received at the shrine, he returned to Golra and soon thereafter proceeded to Hijaz (now part of Saudi Arabia) for Hajj (pilgrimage) and for the Ziarah of the Holy Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) sacred mausoleum at Madina Munawwara. It was there that he was spiritually entrusted with the noble task of mentorship from the exalted court of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) himself. Carrying this high honour with him, he returned home in 1307 A.H to embark upon his mission of spiritual guidance that was to occupy him for the rest of his life.

Silsila-e-Chishtia Nizamiyah

 
Silsila-e-Chishtia Nizamiyah 
Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib was a disciple and Khalifa of Hazrat Shams-ud-din (R.A) in the Silsila-e-Chishtia Nizamiyah. Following is Hazrat’s Shajra-e-Mubarak in the aforesaid Silsila:
  1. Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (Peace Be Upon Him)
  2. Hazrat Ali Al-Murtaza (Karam-Allah-o-Wajho)
  3. Hazrat Khwaja Hasan Basri  (R.A)
  4. Hazrat Khwaja Abdul Wahid bin Zaid (R.A)
  5. Hazrat Khwaja Fazeel Ibn-e-Ayaaz (R.A)
  6. Hazrat Khwaja Sultan Ibrahim Adham (R.A)
  7. Hazrat Khwaja Sadeed-ud-din (R.A)
  8. Hazrat Khwaja Ameen-ud-din (R.A)
  9. Hazrat Khwaja Mumshaad (R.A)
  10. Hazrat Khwaja Abi Ishaq Shami Chishti (R.A)
  11. Hazrat Khwaja Syed Abi Ahmad Abdal Chishti (R.A)
  12. Hazrat Khwaja Syed Abi Muhammad Chishti (R.A)
  13. Hazrat Khwaja Syed Nasir-ud-din Chishti (R.A)
  14. Hazrat Khwaja Syed Qutb-ud-din Maudud Chishti (R.A)
  15. Hazrat Khwaja Makhdum Haji Sharif (R.A)
  16. Hazrat Khwaja Usman Harooni (R.A)
  17. Hazrat Khwaja Syed Moin-ud-din Chishti of Ajmer Sharif (R.A)
  18. Hazrat Khwaja Syed Qutb-ud-din Bakhtiar Kaki (R.A)
  19. Hazrat Khwaja Baba Fareed-ud-din Ganjshakar (R.A)
  20. Hazrat Khwaja Syed Nizaam-ud-din Awlia (R.A)
  21. Hazrat Khwaja Naseer-ud-din Charagh-e-Delhi (R.A)
  22. Hazrat Khwaja Kamaal-ud-din (R.A)
  23. Hazrat Khwaja Siraaj-ud-din (R.A)
  24. Hazrat Khwaja I’lm-ud-din  (R.A)
  25. Hazrat Khwaja Mehmood Rajan (R.A)
  26. Hazrat Khwaja Jamaal-ud-din Juman (R.A)
  27. Hazrat Khwaja Jamaal-ud-din Hasan Muhammad Nuri (R.A)
  28. Hazrat Khwaja Qutb Shams-ud-din Muhammad (R.A)
  29. Hazrat Khwaja Muhammad (R.A)
  30. Hazrat Khwaja Kaleem Ullah Jahanabadi (R.A)
  31. Hazrat Khwaja Nizaam-ud-din Aurongabadi (R.A)
  32. Hazrat Khwaja Fakhr-ud-din (R.A)
  33. Hazrat Khwaja Nur Muhammad Mahaarvi (R.A)
  34. Hazrat Khwaja Muhammad Sulaiman Taunsvi (R.A)
  35. Hazrat Khwaja Shams-ud-din Sialvi (R.A)
  36. Hazrat Khwaja Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A)

    Silsila-e-Qadriyah Razzaqiyah Gilania

     
    Silsila-e-Qadriyah Razzaqiyah Gilania 
    Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) was a disciple and Khalifa of Hazrat Syed Fazl Din Shah, the maternal uncle of Hazrat’s father Ajji Sahib, in the Silsila Qadriyah Imamiyah. Following is the list of Hazrat’s Silsila-e-Qadriyah: 
    1. Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (P.B.U.H)
    2. Hazrat Ali Al-Murtaza (Karam Allah-o-Wajho)
    3. Hazrat Syedna Imam Hasan Mujtaba (R.A)
    4. Hazrat Khwaja Hasan Basri (R.A)
    5. Hazrat Habib Al-Ajmi (R.A)
    6. Hazrat Daud Tai (R.A)
    7. Hazrat Khwaja Maruf Kirkhi (R.A)
    8. Hazrat Khwaja Sirri Saqti (R.A)
    9. Hazrat Khwaja Syed Junaid Baghdadi (R.A)
    10. Hazrat Khwaja Abubakar Shibli (R.A)
    11. Hazrat Khwaja Abdul Wahid (R.A)
    12. Hazrat Abdul Aziz Al-Tamimi (R.A)
    13. Hazrat Khwaja Abi Al-Farh Ala-ud-din (R.A)
    14. Hazrat Khwaja Abi Al-Hasan Ali (R.A)
    15. Hazrat Khwaja Abi Saeed  (R.A)
    16. Hazrat Ghaus-e-Azam Mehboob-e-Subhani Syedna Abdul Qadir Jilani (R.A)
    17. Hazrat Syed Abdul Razzaq (R.A)
    18. Hazrat Khwaja Shah Nuruddin (R.A)
    19. Hazrat Khwaja Shah Ahya (R.A)
    20. Hazrat Khwaja Bahauddin Musa (R.A)
    21. Hazrat Farrukh Shah Shaqoli (R.A)
    22. Hazrat Ahmad Quddus (R.A)
    23. Hazrat Muhammad Al-Maghribi (R.A)
    24. Hazrat Abdul Haq Al-Maghribi  (R.A)
    25. Hazrat Abbas Ilyas Al-Maghribi (R.A)
    26. Hazrat Abdullah Syed Miran Shah (R.A)
    27. Hazrat Miran Maqarib (R.A)
    28. Hazrat Shah Fazil Qalandar (R.A)
    29. Hazrat Abdul Qadir Sani (R.A)
    30. Hazrat Khwaja Muzzafar (R.A)
    31. Hazrat Khwaja Sabz Pani Patti (R.A)
    32. Hazrat Syed Lal Shah Sahib (R.A)
    33. Hazrat Khwaja Shah Sirmast (R.A)
    34. Hazrat Yar Muhammad (R.A)
    35. Hazrat Abid Shah (R.A)
    36. Hazrat Khwaja Syed Rasul (R.A)
    37. Hazrat Sa’ein Ali Muhammad Miskeen Shah (R.A)
    38. Hazrat Syed Pir Fazal Din Shah (R.A)
    39. Hazrat Khwaja Syed Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib (R.A)
     Hazrat was also in bai’at  with the Silsila Chishtia Sabriya, Qadriyah Jaddiyah, and Silsila Rafaiya.

Qadyani movement an introduction

 
Belief in the Absolute Unity of Allah, and in the prophethood of Muhammad (Peace and Blessings of Allah Be Upon Him), particularly its finality for all time to come, constitute the two basic tenants of the Islamic faith. It was Islam which apprised the humanity that Allah and Allah alone is entitled to man’s worship and adoration, and that He is the Creator as well as the Sustainer of this Universe, its sole Lord and Master, and its Sovereign Ruler. It also declared categorically that Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is the last true Messenger of Allah, and that the code of conduct he presented to the world, based on Quran and Divine Revelation, was the only one that could guide humanity on the right path and lead it to prosperity in this world as well in the Hereafter. It was, therefore, eminently deserving of unwavering adherence by man for his own eternal good.
Since the unequivocal affirmation of the finality of Syedna Muhammad’s (P.B.U.H) Prophethood has been made in the following verse of the Holy Quran (Surah 33, Ayah 40):   
Translation: “Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Apostle of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets (closing the line of Prophets for all time to come, in the same manner as a “seal” completes a document beyond any addition or alteration)”
The aforesaid announcement is supported by a number of ahadith of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) himself. One of these ahadith is : “The Messenger of Allah said (to Hazrat Ali (R.A) ) : Are you not happy that you are (in relation) to me as Harun (was to Musa), except that there is no Prophet after me.”
From the beginning, the anti-Islamic movements have played their part to harm the beliefs of the Muslim Ummah, thus trying to harm the Din (Islam) itself. These anti-Islamic movements were unable to make much headway against Tawhid (Absolute Unity of Allah) in the minds of the Muslims. So their concentration was on eroding the finality for all times to come of the Prophethood of Muhammad (P.B.U.H), and diminishing the unbounded love and respect in which every Muslim without exception held, and still holds, his great Prophet (P.B.U.H). They hoped that by weakening this concept they would be helping in the weakening the concept of Tawhid as well.
The aforesaid disruptive efforts had started during the closing years of the Holy Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) own life and immediately following his passing away. They had found expression, inter alia, in the emergence of a number of imposter prophets in the Arab peninsula such as Musailimah, Aswad Anasi, Abu Ubaidah Thaqafi, Dhul Khamar Anasi and Tulaihah Asadi. All these were, however, summarily crushed through firm and timely deterrent action, initially by the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) himself and later by first righteous Caliph Abubakar (R.A). Similar false prophet-hoods continued to raise their heads occasionally in other periods also in other lands but failed to make much impact so long as Muslim power and influence (both material and spiritual) were in zenith. The position of the Muslims changed dramatically in the 13th Hijrah century (19th century AD) when the Muslim community coincided with the rise of political, intellectual and economic ascendancy of the non-Muslim nations of the West. This provided to hitherto low-lying anti-Islam elements an environment in which they could rally their forces once again, and try to deal a decisive and crushing blow to the principles and beliefs of the Islamic faith and to the Muslim community in general.
It was during this period of adversity for the Muslim Ummah that, with the socio-political tactic of the then British Government of India, there arose in India that mischievous movement which is known as Qadianism (after the name of its domicile founder Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian) and Ahmadiyat.
All schools of Islamic thought were fully unanimous in their acceptance of the finality of Syedna Muhammad’s (P.B.U.H) Prophet-hood, until the founder of Qadianism (Mirza Ghulam Ahmad) put forth a claim to be a full-fledged apostle of Allah. This claim was the culmination of some lesser claims made by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (to be referred to later as “Mirza” only) to start with. His initial step, for example, was to challenge the following clear Quranic declaration to the effect that Jesus Christ had been raised alive to heaven and not killed on the Cross, as the Jews claimed and as was believed by some people later (italics provided):   
Translation:

“ And they (i.e., the Jews) said (in boast): we killed Messiah son of Mary, Allah’s messenger; however, they killed him not nor did they crucify him, but it was made to appear so unto them, and those who disagree concerning it are in doubt thereof; they have no knowledge thereof save the pursuit of conjecture; for certainly they killed him not; but Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah was ever Mighty, Wise: (IV, 157-158).

Mirza also repudiated the unanimous Muslim belief, based on authentic ahadith of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), that Christ would descend alive from heaven sometime before the Judgment Day, to complete his interrupted life span and mission on earth, and that he would do so in the cause of Islam. In these ahadith, contained in Sahih-e-Muslim, which ranks among the most authentic and authoritative hadith collections, the Prophet (P.B.U.H) is on record as having stated that the period sometime before the Resurrection (i.e., Judgment day) would be characterized by widespread turmoil and upheavals in the world. It would witness the appearance on the world scene of a person named Dajjal (Antichrist), who with the help of his magic and other satanic forces, would make life miserable for its inhabitants, especially the believing Muslims who would be the special target of his atrocities. It would be then that Jesus Christ would descend from heaven at a spot on earth near a “white minaret” towards the eastern side of the city of Damascus (Syria), supported by two angels. Christ would then join the battle against Dajjal, would kill him in combat, and would thereafter lead the revival and rejuvenation of Islamic forces in the world. After living for another seven years, he would die a natural death and would be buried in the compound of the Prophet’s Mosque (P.B.U.H) in Madina Munawwara.
Sometime before the descent of Jesus Christ on earth, a person belonging to Banu Fatima (The Fatimid descendants of the Prophet (P.B.U.H)) would have been born, whose real name would be Muhammad and his honorific title Mahdi (The Rightly-guided One). Mahdi, who would be in full youth at the time of Christ’s descent, would welcome the latter on his arrival, and would serve as his chief aide both in fighting Dajjal and in bringing about the resurgence of Islam in the world.
Since the precise timing of the appearance of the Mahdi, and of the subsequent descent of Jesus Christ from heaven, is not indicated in the ahadith mentioned above, a number of persons put forward claims to being the predicted Mahdi in different periods since the passing away of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) of Islam. Before, however, they could have the privilege of greeting Jesus Christ, they themselves passed from the world scene for ever. 

The founder of Qadianism adopted an approach somewhat different from his forerunners. To start with, he averred that Jesus Christ had not been raised alive to heaven as believed by the mass of Muslims on the basis of interpretations of the relevant ahadith by the early ulama. Instead, he asserted that Christ had in fact died on the Cross, and that the person predicted to appear before the Judgment Day would, therefore, not be Christ himself but his masil (replica, likeness or prototype). Simultaneously, he claimed, first that he himself was that masil of Christ, and later that he was the promised Messiah (or Christ) in his person and not only a masil. From here he proceeded to refute the firmly-established concept of the absolute finality of the Prophet-hood of Muhammad (P.B.U.H) first calling himself a zilli nabi or  “shadow prophet” and then announcing his elevation to full prophet-hood. He thus sought to demolish a fundamental Muslim belief that is rooted in the Quranic verse quoted above, is re-affirmed in a number of the Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) authentic ahadith (one of them also cited as specimen above), and has been unanimously accepted by the Muslim Ummah for the past 13 centuries and more.

 

Founder of Qadianism

 
Early life of the Founder of Qadianism, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadyani
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Qadyani movement, was born in the village of Qadian in the Gurdaspur District of Punjab (India) in 1839 or 1840. His father, Ghulam Murtaza, was a physician-cum-landowner of Mughal descent. After completing his education in the Arabic and Persian languages (as was customary in orthodox Muslim families of the day) and in Tibb (Eastern medicine), Mirza Ghulam Ahmad served for about four years beginning 1864 as a clerk in the office of Deputy Commissioner (District Officer) of Sialkot District. He then gave up this job to join his father’s practice of medicine. Simultaneously, he continued his somewhat irregular study of religious literature and also participated in religious debates. As far as is known, his ancestors had been orthodox Sunni (Hanafi) Muslims, and Mirza also subscribed to the same school of thought in his early years. In fact in 1879, at the age of about 40, he publicly announced his intention to write a fifty-volume book titled Barahin-e-Ahmadiyah (The Ahmadi Proofs), seeking to expound in strong and irrefutable terms, but on the basis of solid logic and reasoning, the truth of Islam vis-à-vis other religions. He also appealed to the Sub-continent’s Muslim community to provide material help to him in this noble task. In response to this call, the Muslims in general extended generous financial support to him in what they viewed as a laudable venture. After publishing only four volumes (out of the 50 initially promised) in the years between 1880 and 1884, however, Mirza abandoned the project, and stopped publication of subsequent volumes of the book. He did this on the plea that since he was the mujaddid of the century, he had been commanded by Allah to propagate Islam through divine inspiration rather than through intellectual effort and the written word. (More than 23 years later, Mirza wrote and published the fifth and last volume of the Barahin in 1905, i.e., three years before his death).
In 1886, Mirza wrote his second book, titled Aryah Dharm (The Aryah Creed), and also held a debate in Hoshiarpur (Punjab) with the Hindu Aryah Samaji sect. This enabled him to make some name for himself as an Islamic debater, and also helped him build up a group of disciples around him. Hakim Nurrudin (1841-1914), then personal physician of the Maharajah of the Jammu and Kashmir princely State and a relation of Mirza through his wife, was a prominent member of this influential band of advisors and helpers.
Mirza’s Early Beliefs
Till now, Mirza’s religious beliefs, including that in the finality of the prophet-hood of Muhammad (P.B.U.H), were fully orthodox like any other true Sunni Muslim. In a public notice dated 2 October 1891, which is included in the second volume of his book Tabligh-e-Risalat (Dissemination of Prophet-hood), he wrote as follows:
“I subscribe to all Islamic beliefs, and uphold all those things which are borne out by the Quran and the Hadith and are accepted as true by the Ahl-e-sunnah wal jama’ah (Sunni Muslims). I regard anyone claiming prophet-hood after Muhammad (P.B.U.H), the last of all Prophets of Allah, to be an impostor and a kafir (infidel). I firmly believe that divine prophetic revelation had started with Adam and had finally ended for all time to come with Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H). Let everyone be a witness to this”.  
Mental state of the contemporary Muslim community
The Muslim community of India was passing through a grave mental and emotional crisis around this time. On the one hand, it has lost its former political supremacy lasting for several centuries, and was forced to wait expectantly for the emergence of a leader who could rid it out of its state of gloom and despair through his dynamic leadership. On the other, its religious, moral and cultural values were being seriously threatened by the materialistic ideas of Europe which had invaded the Sub-continent via the British rule. Its common people as well as the intellectual elite were finding themselves helpless against this onslaught. The intellectual element of the community had in fact been forced to conclusion that coping successfully with this dual challenge was impossible without acquiring and adopting the materialistic values of the West. It was on this premise that Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, the noted Muslim educationist and founder of the Muslim University at Aligarh, launched his historic movement to introduce the Muslims of India to the new cultural values of the West, and to popularize English education and arts among them. Consciously or otherwise, however, Sir Syed’s movement came to be associated with the spread of “naturalism”.
Journey of Mirza’s claims from a Masil to a full prophet
In spite of Mirza’s early beliefs, his false predictions proved to be a masil-ul-Masih (likeliness or analog of Jesus Christ) to a full prophet with a shariah (Religion).
Mirza’s claim to be a Masil of Jesus Christ, The Messiah

It was around this time that Hakim Nurrudin, the disciple, relative and close associate of Mirza mentioned earlier, advised him to exploit the prevailing demoralized state of the Indian Muslims to his own advantage. Nurrudin felt that if Mirza were to present himself before the nation as a masil of Jesus Christ, he was sure to be greeted as a savior and a redeemer, and would be able to play a vital role in the Muslim nation’s revival. Initially, Mirza did not view this idea with favour and wrote to Nurrudin as follows in his letter dated 24 January 1891, which in included in Maktubat-e-Ahmadiyah (The letters of (Ghulam) Ahmad):
“With reference to your suggestion that, regardless of the hadith concerning the prospective descent of Jesus Christ near the minaret on the eastern side of Damascus (Syria) I should put forward a claim to be the masil of Christ, I wish to say that I have no need to do any such thing. My sole desire is that Allah may include me in His humble and obedient bondsmen. For us (human beings) there is no running away from trials and tribulations, which are indeed the only means of (material and spiritual) progress….”.
Not long after writing the aforesaid letter, however, Mirza put forward a claim to be a Masil of Jesus Christ in the following words reproduced from the posture included in the book Tabligh-e-Risalat, Vol. II:  
“I do not claim to be a Messiah Jesus son of Mary (in person), nor do I believe in tanasukh (transmigration of the soul). My only claim is to be only the Masil of Jesus. This is because my spiritual state resembles the spiritual state of Jesus Christ as closely as does muhaddithiyat (mastery of the Prophet’s Hadith) resemble prophet-hood”.

From Messiah’s Masil to promised Messiah in person
Mirza did not stick to his claim to be a Masil of Jesus Christ for long. His next step was to refute the belief concerning the “aliveness” of Christ and to assert that Christ had in fact “died” on the Cross. He then proceeded to declare himself to be the promised Messiah and the promised Mahdi. This he did in the following statements excerpted from his books titled Tawdih-e-Maram (The Elucidation of Objectives), Fateh-ul-Islam (The victory of Islam), Tabligh-e-Risalat, Tohfa-e-Golraviyah (The Golravi present) and many other books like this.                                        
“Both the Muslims and the Christians believe (with a slight difference of detail) that Jesus son of Mary was lifted bodily and alive to heaven, and that he would descend to earth at some future date. I have denied the validity of this belief earlier in this journal”           
Tawdih-e-Maram
“ If you are true believers, you should be thankful and should bow to God that the moment for which your ancestors waited expectantly for long, and countless souls passed away without witnessing it, has finally arrived. I cannot help saying repeatedly that I have been sent in good time to reform mankind and to re-instill the din in people’s heart, in the same manner as he (i.e., Jesus Christ) who was sent after Moses and whose soul was raised to heaven after great agony in the reign of Herod. The Masil of Jesus Christ (i.e., Mirza himself) promised (by God) to Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) has now descended from heaven in the fourteenth Hijrah century, i.e., approximately the same length of time after Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) as that between Moses and Jesus Christ. This is a spiritual descent. It has taken place during a period very similar to the one in which the original Christ had come, and is meant to be a “sign” for those who understand”;
Fateh-ul-Islam
“ And this is the long-awaited Christ, and it is I who am referred to in revealed texts as Mary and Jesus, and about whom it was said that he would be made a “sign” and it was also said that he would be the Jesus son of Mary that was due to come. Those who doubt this are in manifest error”.
                                                                                                                        Kashti-e-Nuh

“I swear by God who has sent me, and to whom only the accused ones attribute anything but the truth, that He has sent me as the Promised Messiah”. 

Tabligh-e-Risalat
“I hereby claim to be that promised Messiah, about whom there are prophecies in all the sacred books of Allah that he would appear (again) in the last period of history”.
Tohfa-e-Golraviyah
To prove his claimed resemblance to Jesus Christ, Mirza put forward some queer arguments. Here are some examples:
“ My birth had a novelty about it similar to the birth of Christ, in that a girl had been born as my twin. This is an uncommon happening, since a single child is born in most cases”.
Tohfa-e-Golraviyah
“Another point of resemblance between Jesus Christ and the promised Messiah of this Ummah (i.e., Mirza himself) is that Christ was not a full-fledged Israelite but was considered so only because of his mother. Similarly some of my grandmothers were descendants of the Prophet (P.B.U.H) of Islam. Furthermore, the secret about Christ having been born without a father was that Allah was highly displeased with the children of Israel because of the multiplicity of their sins”.
A lecture delivered in Sialkot
“ Be sure that the person who has now descended (i.e., Mirza) is in fact (Jesus) son of Mary, who, like the original Jesus Christ, had no human as his ‘spiritual father’. Allah Himself, therefore, became his custodian, took him under His protection, and named him (also) Son of Mary. He is thus symbolically Jesus Son of Mary, who was born without father? Can you prove (also) that he is a member of any one of the four schools of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence)? If not, then who is this person if not the Son of Mary?
Izalatul Awham
“The fourteenth specialty of Jesus Christ was that because of a father, he was not part of the Bani Israel (i.e., Children of Israel). He was, nevertheless, the last Prophet of the chain of Moses, and came fourteen centuries after Moses. Similarly, even though I do not belong to a family of Quraish, I have been deputed (by Allah) in the fourteenth century (after the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), and am the last of all”.
                                                                      Tazkirahtush Shahadatain (An Account of Two Testimonies)
                                                                                          By Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian
Following the afore mentioned declarations, Mirza placed distorted interpretations on some of the Holy Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) ahadith concerning the future descent of Jesus Christ. Some examples are given below:
As indicated earlier, the descent of Jesus Christ was to take place, according to the hadith in Sahih Muslim, in the following circumstances:
      a)   His descent would be next to at the eastern minaret in the city of Damascus (Syria).
b)   He would be clad in two yellow sheets.
c)   On being requested by the Imam (leader) of the Muslims to lead the prayers, Jesus Christ would  say that this should be done by their own Imam (your Imam is from among yourselves) other corroborating ahadith indicate that Hazrat Mahdi would be the Imam in question.
Mirza made the aforesaid three circumstances applicable to himself on the following rather funny premises:
a)   Just as Damascus (Syria) had been inhabited by wicked people who had martyred Imam Hussain (R.A), so as Qadian (Punjab) inhabited by people who do not hesitate to kill pious and pure people. It was therefore necessary that the masil of Christ should also descend among such wicked people.
Damascus and Qadian are geographically “situated on the same latitude”, and there would be a “minaret of Messiah” in Qadian similar to the “eastern minaret” of Damascus mentioned in the Prophet’s hadith.
Izalatul Awham
(Mirza also started building a minaret in Qadian but died before its completion. Furthermore, there was in fact no similarity about “killing of pious people” between the inhabitants of Damascus and Qadian. There are no instances of any Qadyani having murdered any holy personality like Syedna Imam Hussain (R.A) or ever of making an attempt on Mirza’s own life.)
Mirza also asserted that the Al-Aqsa Mosque, which is situated in Jerusalem, and to which Allah had miraculously transported the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) across hundreds of miles from Makkah on the night of the Miraj (Ascension), in fact meant the mosque of the promised Messiah that was situated in Qadian. 
(Tazkirah-e-Majmuah-e-Wahy-e-Muqaddas, An Account of the Collection of Sacred Revelations).
b)   As regards the two yellow sheets in which, according to the Holy Prophet’s above-cited hadith, Christ would be clad at the time of his future descent to earth, Mirza likened these symbolically but far-fetchedly to the two types of physical ailment from which he then suffered, viz., frequent headaches, vertigo, insomnia, and heart spasm in the upper part of his body, and diabetes in its lower part.
 (cf. Appendix to Araba’in, Nos. 3 and 4).
c)   With reference to the word (Your imam is from among yourselves), which are attributed to Jesus Christ in the aforementioned hadith in response to the request to be made to him lead the prayers, Mirza interpreted (or rather misinterpreted) them to mean that Christ would assume the form of his own masil and would then lead the prayers himself – an interpretation that clearly conflicts with those accepted by all previous scholars and interpreters of hadith and also with other portions of the same hadith.
Concerning that part of hadith, for example, in which it was predicted that Jesus Christ would kill the Dajjal signified those Christian priests whom he (i.e., Mirza) had already “killed” through arguments contained in his various books. In placing this construction on the hadith, Mirza in fact implied that the Prophet (P.B.U.H) erred in interpreting the message revealed to him by God on this point, since, according to him (i.e., Mirza) it was by no means certain that an apostle could fully comprehend all the aspects of even those future events which God Himself revealed to him.
 

Movement

 
From Promised Messiah to a full prophet
Mirza’s claim to be the promised Messiah lasted for about 10 years. Thereafter, in November 1901, he went a step further, and, repudiating the unanimous Muslim belief in the finality of prophet-hood of Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) for all time to come, to which he himself had categorically subscribed as shown earlier, put forward an unequivocal claim to be a full-fledged prophet of Allah.
The occasion for this arose initially in August 1901 when the khatib (leader of congregational prayers) of Mirza’s mosque in Qadian referred to Mirza in his Friday khutbah (sermon) as a prophet and messenger of Allah. Despite a strong objection raised to this remark by one of those present in the congregation, the khatib repeated the statement in the next Friday khutbah and the objector raised his objection once again. On being requested by the khatib to adjudicate, and to correct him if he was in the wrong, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who hitherto had been hesitant to venture a direct claim to prophet-hood, and had confined himself to claiming to be “God’s deputed one”, “His appointed one”, “His trusted one”, and the “Masil” of Messiah etc. decided to take the final plunge and confirmed the statement made concerning him by the khatib. This greatly infuriated that person (Syed Muhammad Ahsan Qadyani), who started arguing loudly with the khatib. Thereupon, Mirza himself appeared on the scene and chided both of them by reciting the following Quranic verse, which had in fact been revealed in relation to Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) (O believers! Raise not your voices above the voice of Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H))

(Cf. Al Fadl, official Qadyani newspaper, Qadian, 4 January 1923, and journal Furqan-e-Qadianiyat, October 1942 issue).

His former hesitancy in the matter having thus been removed, Mirza followed up the aforesaid incident by making clear and written assertions to the same effect. For example:
“How can I deny being a prophet or a messenger when Allah Himself has conferred these titles upon me? Why should I reject them or fear anyone besides Him”?                              
                                                                                                       Eik Ghalati Ka Izalah (Removal of an error)  
“ God has endorsed my prophethood through thousands of ‘signs’ in a manner no other apostle’s prophethood was endorsed in past______ I swear by God (who holds my life in His hands) that He alone has sent me and named me prophet as well as the Promised Messiah, and He has manifested as many as three hundred thousand ‘signs’ in my favour”.
                                    Epilogue to “Haqiqat-ul-Wahi (The Reality of Revelation), 1907.
Bizarre arguments against Holy Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) Finality of Prophethood
In his earlier books (e.g., Barahin-e-Ahmadiyah, Vol. IV, and Izalatul Awham, etc.), Mirza had stated categorically that the coming of any prophet after Muhammad (P.B.U.H) was “impossible and contrary to the promise of God”. However, when he decided to become a prophet himself, he put forward all sorts of arguments contrary to confirmed Muslim beliefs on this point. 
In Barahin-e-Ahmadiyah (Vol. V, published 1905), for example, he wrote thus: …………. “ How wrong and absurd it is to believe that the door to Divine revelation has been closed for all time to come after Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H), and that there is no hope of its resumption until the Day of Judgment. This means that future generations of humanity have been left to worship and believe in ancient tales only, and that even if someone (implying Mirza himself) strives in path of Allah with such devotion as to sacrifice everything including his life for His sake, he will have no direct opportunity to learn about Him or to be addressed by Him at a personal level……..What is the value of religion that does not provide any direct knowledge about God but relies instead on stories and legends only? I swear by Allah that regard such a religion as the religion of Satan, and one which leads its followers straight to hell.
Claim to be a shadow prophet
For sometime after making his prophetic claim, Mirza projected himself as a zilli nabi (shadow prophet), implying that even though the door to prophet-hood was still open, no one could be invested with it directly as in the past but only through endorsement and certification by Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H), whom God had called Khatim-un-Nabiyyin in the Quran. He interpreted this appellation to mean, not “the last of all Prophets” as universally believed by the Muslim Ummah on the basis of undisputed evidence from the Quran itself as well as numerous ahadith, but the “seal of prophets” which was intended to endorse or ratify the prophet-hood of others. Thus, in turn, also implied that persons could and in fact would appear after Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) whom the latter would certify with his “seal”. According to Mirza, the criterion for such certification was to be the concerned person’s strict and consistent adherence to the Prophet’s shariah, as he claimed to have done himself.
Full prophet with a shariah
After remaining a shadow prophet for some time, Mirza finally proceeded to take a step about which even the most accomplished ulama and Awlia (Saints) of the Ummah shuddered to think. He put forward a claim to be a full-fledged prophet of Allah with his own shariah (canonical code), and also Khatim-un-Nabiyyin (the last of the prophets). He thus ventured to transgress that most hallowed boundary which even Angel Gabriel had excused himself from crossing on the night of the Holy Prophet’s Miraj (Ascension) to the high heavens, and where the Mashaikh of the Ummah dared not to breath with ease.  
In the words of a Persian poet,
   
 
Translation: 
“There exists a place commanding the highest respect below the sky (i.e., the tomb of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), which is holier that even the Throne of Allah; 
Even (such sublime personalities as) Junaid (of Baghdad) and Bayazid (of Bastam) approach this place with held breath”.
In his book titled “Eik Ghalati Ka Izalah”, Mirza wrote:
“Many a time have I told people that in consonance with the Quranic ayah (Surah Al-Juma-Ayah 3) (Translation: Along with others who have not yet joined them__ LXII, 3), I am symbolically the last of the prophets, that god named me Muhammad and Ahmad twenty years ago, and also that He pronounced me to be Prophet Muhammad himself. So when the Promised Messiah and Muhammad are one and the same in record of Allah, when they possess the same dignity, status, mission as well as name, and when there is no duality or difference between them except of a verbal nature only, how far removed from truth it would be for people to deny that the Promised Messiah is none but Muhammad himself”.
 (Excerpt published in the journal Al-Fazl dated 16 September 1915).

 

 

Wahi

 
Wahi (revelation), Ilham (inspiration) and predictions of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
(a)    Wahi 
Having made a claim to full prophethood, Mirza proceeded to take all those steps which he considered necessary to substantiate that claim. These included assertions that he was receiving wahi (divine revelation), ilham (inspiration), and kashf (vision) in the manner of other prophets. This is borne out, inter alia, by the following poem reproduced on page 287 of the collection of his poetry titled Durr-e-Thamin (The Precious Pearl):
(By God, whatever I hear through divine revelation, I consider it to be free from error).
In another book Arba’in No.4, he wrote that had as full a belief in divine revelations to himself as he had in the Torah, the Bible and the Quran. In Haqiqatul Wahi, he wrote:
“God’s revelations to me are so numerous that they would cover 20 chapters if compiled”.
“The angel A’il came to me. (Note: Allah has named Gabriel as A’il here because he comes again and again). He chose me, spun his finger and said to me that God’s promise had been fulfilled, and that blessed would be he who receives and witnesses it”.
(The followers of Mirza give the name Kitab-ul-Mubeen (the Manifest book) to the collection of his wahi and inspirations. This is in fact the appellation used by Allah for the Quran in the Holy Book itself).
(b)   Ilhamat 
In addition to wahi, Mirza also claimed to receive ilham (inspiration) from time to time. In his book Izalatul Awham, he had described at some length the various types of ilhamat, and the condition of those who receive them as follows:
“Ilham is of two kinds: Rahmani (Divine) and Shaitani (Satanic). The former ilham is accompanied by divine light and blessings. The latter is, however, influenced by the inspired person’s own hopes and wishes. This happens especially when he entertains in his mined a hidden desire to have a certain ilham which is in line with his own inclination. In such a situation, Satan intervenes and makes some words issue from him which are in effect satanic words, but which the inspired person construes as divine words. Such satanic intervention occurs sometimes in the wahi of God’s apostle and messengers also, but the words resulting from it are struck off instantly by divine intervention”.
“ I have seen many persons who consider every voice that come to them to be ilham; in fact, such voices are little more than confused dreams. Every voice that one hears cannot be regarded as the voice of God, unless it is accompanied by the light and blessings that characterize that sacred Word of God”.
“ Until and unless the inner dirt and pollution are got rid of and person reaches the stage when this world and its attraction appear to him even less significant than a dead worm, and unless Allah becomes for him the sole Object and Raison d’etre of all his words and deeds, no one can attain that station where he can hear the voice of Allah”. 
(Mirza Sahib’s pronouncement published in the Al-Hakam Newspaper dated 31 March 1903).
In his book Haqiqatul Wahi, Mirza classified the receivers of ilham into three categories, viz. : (i) those who possess no skills and have no relationship with God, but who sometimes see true dreams and experience kashf (clairvoyance or inner vision) by true virtue of their mental attributes only; (ii) those who have some but not a perfect relationship with God; and (iii) those who burn their carnal desires in the fire of God’s love and opt for a life of bitterness and hardship solely for His sake. He simultaneously claimed to have been placed by God in the last-named category, “not because of any effort on my part but even while I was in my mother’s womb”.
Some specimens of Mirza’s ilhamat (inspirations) and of his “cognition” of Allah:
–         My God pledged allegiance unto me.       (“Dafi-ul-Bala”, The Repeller of Calamity).
–         (God said to me): “O sun, O moon! Thou art from me and I am from thee.”       (Haqiqat-ul-Wahi)
–         (i) Thou art like a son to Me”.
          (ii) Listen to me My Son.           (Al-Bushra, Vol. 1)
(How brazenly this negates the Quranic assertion that Allah begetteth no, nor was He begotten, (CXII,3) ).
–         I am with the Messenger. I reply; I make errors, and I (also) do the right things.
–         (God said to me:) “Your name, and not Mine, would be perfected”.
–         “(Such is thy greatness that) if thou decideth to do something, and orderest it to be, it shall be”.
–         “Thou art from Our water, while they are from dryness”.
–          “The earth and the sky are with thee, as they are with Me”.
(It may be mentioned that the aforesaid so-called “inspirations” are not only flagrantly blasphemous, in that they elevate Mirza to the position of virtual equality with God Himself; there are blatant errors of grammar and diction also in the Arabic language in which they are couched).
–         “Allah praises thee from His Throne, and comes to thee”.
–         “Like Mary, the spirit of Jesus was breathed into me, and I was allegorically made pregnant! After no more than 10 months, I was transformed from Mary to Jesus. In this way, I am the son of Mary!”
(Kashti-e-Nuh)
–         “We give thee tidings of a son, who will be such a manifestation of truth and loftiness as if God Himself had descended from heaven!”
(Istafta, The Verdict by Mirza himself)
–         I yet another ilham quoted in A’ina-e-Kamalat-e-Islam (Mirror of the Accomplishment of Islam), he said he had dreamt that he was Allah Himself and had created the sky and earth!
–         In Al-Bushra, (Vol. II) he wrote: “Allah revealed that He will say His prayers, shall observe fast, shall wake, and shall sleep”.
In volume 1 of the same book, he wrote: “God will descend in Qadian”.
–         In dafi-ul-Bala, he said: “He is the true God, who sent His messenger to Qadian”.
–         In Ijaz-e-Ahmadi (The Miracle of Ahmad i.e., Ghulam Ahmad), the following ilham was quoted: “ News about thy coming is there in Quran and the Hadith. The Quranic ayah (He it is who sent His Messenger with correct guidance and the true religion, so that He may cause it to prevail over all the other religions) (IX, 33) pertains to thee”.
–         I saw (in a dream) that I was in a jungle, and was surrounded by many kinds of beasts such as monkeys and swine, whom I construed to be the people of the Ahmadi community (i.e., his own followers!).
(Quoted in Paigham-e-Sulh Newspaper, dated 7 April 1934)
–         When Mirza Sahib needed money to finance his planned second marriage, he received loans of Rs. 500 and Rs. 300 from two different parties as a result of an ilham!
(Haqiqat-ul-Wahi)
(c)    Predictions
Many of Mirza’s ilhamats are in the form of predictions, which Mirza put forward as criteria and signs of his truth. Some of these predictions, and the fate they met in each case are reproduced in the succeeding, paragraphs. It will be seen that unlike the prediction of Allah’s true prophets of the past which were invariably proved to be correct, a large majority of Mirza’s predictions turned out to be wrong.
(i)            Divine inspiration revealed to me that a son will be born to Muhammadi Begum, wife of Mian Manzur Muhammad, who will be given on of the following four names: Bashiruddawlah, Alam-e-Kabab, Shadi Khan, Kalimatulah Khan. (Al-Bushra, Vol. II).
(In fact, a daughter and not a son was born to the lady in question on 17 July 1906. being a master of adroitly explaining away such perverted happenings, Mirza claimed that the birth of a daughter instead of a son was a result of his own prayer to Allah, since the advent of a son would have resulted in a calamitous earthquake!)
(ii)    With respect to his commentary on the Holy Quran, titled Ijaz-ul-Masih (The Miracle of Messiah), Mirza had made an inspired prediction that whoever thought of writing a reply to that commentary would be put to shame and would perish. However, when Hazrat raised more than a hundred objections to the commentary in question in his book Saif-e-Chishtiyai (The Chishtia Sword), Mirza tried to explain things away on a variety of flimsy grounds. In the end he had no choice except that his prediction had been proved wrong.
(iii)   Simultaneous with the death of one of Mirza’s son, named Mubarak Ahmad, he claimed that God had given him tidings of a ‘mild-mannered’ son who would have qualities similar to those of (the late) Mubarak Ahmad. (Mirza’s poster dated 5 November 1907, included in his book Tabligh-e-Risalat, Vol. X).
However, Mirza did not have any issue, male or female, after this prediction.
(iv)  In June 1893, Mirza published an “inspired” prediction that Abdullah Atham, a Christian priest with whom he had engaged in a religious debate sometime earlier, “would die and go to hell within the next 15 months”. He said he was ready to suffer any penalty including showering of disgraces upon him, blackening his face, and putting a noose round his neck and hanging him, if the prophecy turned out to be wrong, unless Abdullah Atham embraced Islam in the mean time. In fact Atham, despite his old age, lived for many years after the predicted date, i.e., September 1894, without embracing Islam.
(v)    In 1886, at the age of 46 years, Mirza had requested his cousin Mirza Ahmad Beg for the hand of his daughter Muhammadi Begum (then hardly 12-13 years old) in marriage. In 1888, he announced his ilham that God Himself had given Muhammadi Begum in his wedlock, and that this was bound to happen sooner or later whether she remained virgin or became a widow. The ilham also indicated that if the girl were to be married to someone other than Mirza, her husband would die within 21/2 years and her father within three years. Mirza claimed in his book Anjam-e-Atham, (1897) that he had made this prediction only after God Himself had informed him about it, and that he therefore regarded it as an acid test of his truthfulness or falsity. However, while the girl’s father did die within the predicted period of three years, the girl herself and her husband, Sultan Muhammad, lived until long after Mirza’s own death.
In support of his aforesaid prediction, which turned out to be so blatantly wrong, Mirza was also audacious enough to try to back it up by the Holy Prophet’s prophecy in one of his ahadith that after his future descent from heaven, “Christ would also marry and have children”. Mirza argued that since marriage and having children are common human phenomena, which need no “prediction” to Promised Messiah indicated the special nature of his own predicted marriage to Muhammadi Begum (Mirza’s poster dated 20 February 1888). He conveniently ignored, or perhaps failed to understand, the fact that Jesus Christ had not married before his prediction was therefore meant to signify that he would do so, and thereby fill the erstwhile vacuum in his earthly life, after his future descent from heaven.
In an interesting, even though far-fetched and absurd rationalization of this prediction, Hakim Nurrudin, Mirza’s loyal companion and disciple, expressed the view in the June-July 1908 issue of the Qadyani Journal “Review of Religions” (i.e., after Mirza’s death) that someone from among the descendents of Mirza Sahib would in due course of time marry a girl from among the progeny of Muhammadi Begum!!!
(vi)  The gist of some of Mirza’s inspirations quoted in his books titled Mavahib-ur-Rahman (The gifts of Rahman i.e., Allah), Arba’in No.3, and Tohfa-e-Golraviyah, was that “he would live up to an age of 80 years, or a little less or more”. In fact, his age at the time of his death on 26 May 1908 was 68 or 69.
Dr. Abdul Hakim Surgeon of Patiala Princely State, who was a former devotee of Mirza but had parted ways after remaining with Mirza for nearly twenty years, predicted on 13 July 1906 that Mirza being an imposter and cunning and extravagant person, would meet his end within three years. Sometime later, in July 1907, he advanced the predicted date of Mirza’s death by about 101/2 months, and prophesied that Mirza would die within 14 months of that date. In retaliation to these predictions, Mirza published two posters titled “God will favour the truthful one” and “A comment” to be the liar by outliving the predicted date of his death. He did however pass away within the period prophesied by Dr. Abdul Hakim, while the latter lived until long after his death.
      (vii) Concerning Maulvi Sanaullah of Amritsar, who had denounced Mirza as an imposter, Mirza published on 15th April 1907 a poster containing a fervent prayer to Allah (which he later claimed to have made not on his own initiative but on God’s bidding, cf. the Newspaper Badr dated 25 April 1907), that if Sanaullah was right in his accusation against him, he (i.e., Mirza) should die within the former’s lifetime, otherwise Sanaullah should meet his end within the lifetime of Mirza. He added that he had been abused and persecuted a great deal by people like Sanaullah, but had suffered all their calumnies with patience. Since, however, the hostile attitude of these persons had now surpassed all descent limits, they deserved to be destroyed by God in order to rid the world of the threat posed to it by them.
In fact, while Mirza died in 1908, Maulvi Sanaullah lived for as long as 40 years thereafter up to March 1948, i.e., until after the creation of Pakistan, having spent his whole life in waging a relentless struggle against Qadianism.
(viii)     Mirza is also known to have made predictions on some occasions about the incidence of lunar and solar eclipses, and about the outbreak of bubonic plague and the occurrence of earthquakes. Apart from the fact that eclipses of the sun and the moon can be and are predicted with a high amount of accuracy by astronomers and one does not need to be a prophet to predict them, the eclipses fore told by Mirza failed to materialize on the dates predicted by him. As regards earthquakes Mirza had himself stated sometime earlier that these represented normal phenomena of nature which kept occurring from time to time, and that making prediction about them does not call for any special or extra ordinary prophetic talent. In reference to Jesus Christ, for example, he had written as follows in the appendix of his “Anjam-e-Atham”:
“What were the so called predictions of this miserable man (Jesus Christ)? Only that earthquakes would take place, that famines would occur, or that wars would break out.  Accused of God be the hearts and souls of those who regarded such predictions as an evidence of his divinity, and made a dead man (like him) their god! Do earthquakes not occur and famines not break out always and do not wars keep talking place somewhere or the other in the world at every point of time. How could this ignorant Israelite claim such ordinary things to be his predictions?”
 

Observations

 
Hazrat’s observations about Mirza’s Ilhamat
Incidentally, Hazrat has made the following classification of Mirza Sahib’s inspirations in book “Saif-e-Chishtiyai”:
(i)                 Ilhamat-e-Kazibah (false inspirations). These are the inspirations whose falsity is either testified to buy Mirza’s own utterance from time to time, or which have turned out to be false due to non-fulfillment.
(ii)                Ilhamat-e-Sayyadiyah, i.e., inspirations resembling those of Ibn-e-Sayyad, which are meaningless and incomprehensible. Such inspirations owe their name to the hadith according to which the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), on the occasion of the revelations of Surah-e-Addukhan (Smoke or Mist), 44th Surah of Quran, asked one Ibn-e-Sayyad (possibly a soothsayer) as to what he (i.e., the Prophet) was concealing in his mind and the latter replied “dukh” (smoke)! (Hazrat Shaikh Muhyuddin Ibn-ul-Arabi (R.A) equates such an inspiration with “delusion” in his famous book Futuhat-e-Makkiyah (The Makkan Revelations)).
(iii)               Ilhamat-e-Shaitaniah Insiyah, i.e., those satanic inspirations which some other human being had put into his mind.
(iv)              Ilhamat-e-Shaitaniah Jinniyah, i.e., those satanic inspirations which had been put into his mind by some jinn (gene).
(v)                Ilhamat-e-Shaitaniah Manawiyah. These rank somewhere between Nos. (iii) and (iv) above, and consist in the development of an obsession, primarily through the agency of Satan, that the person concerned possesses capabilities which he in fact does not have. The obsession acquired by Mirza, for example, was that he was “the promised Messiah” and he had clung to this obsession without analyzing it with reason and in the light of the shariah of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H).
In the light of Shaikh Muhyuddin Ibn-ul-Arabi’s observations mentioned against (ii) above, Hazrat expressed the view that the only way to guard against such delusions was through strict observance of the dictates of shariah in all matters. Many persons before Mirza, he said, had been assailed by similar delusive “inspiration” but had been able to successfully ward them of through meticulous shariah observance, and through correct guidance by their respective Mashaikh (spiritual guides).
Distortions of the Quran and the Hadith by Mirza Sahib
Having put forward a categoric claim to prophethood and to the receipt of wahi and ilham, Mirza turned hid attention to manipulation of the Quran and the Hadith for his ends. He started by claiming in his Arba’in no. 4, that God Himself had informed him about the meanings of the Quran, and also about which of the Prophet’s ahadith were correct and which of them had been falsely attributed to him. Similarly, in his Tohfa-e-Golraviyah, he said he had been authorized to accept or reject whatever he desired to the compilations of ahadith “on the basis of knowledge received by him directly from God”.
Mirza’s son Mehmood Ahmad stated as follows on this subject in a khutbah (sermon) reported in Al-Fazl, official Qadyani journal, dated 15 July 1938:
“ There is now no Quran other than that presented by the promised Messiah (i.e., Mirza), no hadith other than that seen in the light emanating from him, and no prophet other than that seen in the same light- if any one wishes to see anything by this dissociating himself from the Promised Messiah, he would be unable to do so. Even if he were to see the Quran, such a Quran would not be the one to provide correct guidance but the one to misguide and mislead- the Promised Messiah used to say that the current compilations of hadith were like the “juggler’s bag”, from which anyone could draw out a hadith of his own liking”.
Disagreement with Muslim Ummah on every principle of Islam
Mirza exploited the aforesaid self-conferred divine authority to temper with the Quran and Hadith, for the purpose of expressing disagreement with the general mass of Muslims in every sphere, be it religious, social or national. His son Mirza Mehmood Ahmad said thus in one of his sermons:
“ These words of the Promised Messiah are still ringing in my ears: ‘ It is wrong that we differ from other people only with respect of the death of Christ or a few other matters. The fact is that we differ from them concerning Allah Himself, the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), the Quran, the daily canonical prayers, fasting, Hajj, Zakat – in short in each and everything”.
                                                                                    (Al-Fazl, 3 July 1931)
The detailed reproduction of all those issues on which Mirza expressed dissent with the Muslim Ummah would require several volumes. Consequently, only few of the salient issues are listed below by way of illustrations:
(i)                  Decent of angles
Mirza described angels to be the “souls of the stars” and on that basis argued in his Ayyam-us-Sulh (Days of Peace) that id the angels were to descend to earth as most Muslims believed, the stars would disintegrate and fall away from the sky. In support of this view, he quoted (or rather misquoted) portions of the following verses of Quran:
Translation: “They say: ‘Why is an angel not sent down to him? If we did send down an angel’, the matter would be settled (at once), and no respite would be grated them.”    (VI, 8)
Say (O Prophet!): “If there were settled on earth angels walking about in peace and quiet, we should certainly have sent down from the heaven an angel for an apostle”.       (XVII, 95)
A perusal of the detailed context of the preceding verses would show that they had no relevance to the point made by Mirza. They had in fact been revealed by Allah to answer the objection of the disbelievers as to why a human being and not an angel had been sent to them as a prophet. Yet, in another of his writings containing a commentary on verse 4 of Surah Al-Qadr of the Quran (XCVII), Mirza himself conceded that angels did in fact descend to earth. (cf., Izalah-e-Awham). Furthermore, according to an entry in the “diary” of Mian Mehmood Ahmad, Khalifa of Qadian, published in Al-Fazl dated 10 April 1922, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and a fellow student during his childhood concerning a statement in an old book that Angel Gabriel no longer descended to earth: “ What the book says is wrong; Gabriel does come to earth even now”.
In his book ” Mavahibur Rahman”, Mirza wrote: “Gabriel came near me, and pointing towards me said, “God will protect thee against enemies”.
In short, Mirza Sahib had no scruples in interpreting even the Quranic verses in a manner that suited his purpose in a given situation.
(ii)                The Human Spirit (Ruh-e-Insaani)
The Holy Quran declares the Ruh (human spirit) to be “by the Command of the Lord” (XVII, 85). It thus belongs to a category of creation that is beyond human comprehension and transcends “abode and direction”. A hadith of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) describes the spirit in the following words:
Translation: “The spirits are the assembled armies (of God). Those of them that loved each other in the erstwhile world (of spirits), and those apposed to each other there, do the same in this world also”.
On the other hand, Mirza declared thus in a speech made by him in a religious public meeting held in Lahore on 27December 1896:
“We witness daily that thousands of germs infest the rotten sores in the human body. The fact, therefore, is that the spirit is a fine light, which is born right in the sperm that breeds in the female womb, and the essence of which is present in the sperm from the very beginning”.
(iii)               Yowm-ud-din (The Day of Judgment)
The words Yowm-ud-din have been used to denote the day of judgment at a number of places in the Holy Quran, for example:
1.      And lo! The wicked verily will be in hell; they will burn therein on the Day of Judgment. (LXXXII, 14-15)
 

Jihad Bissaif

 
Jihad Bissaif (Armed holy war)
In a period when Christian nations, especially Britain, France, and the Czarist Russia, were wrecking Muslim realms every where, Mirza declared armed jihad (holy war) as forbidden by God for all Muslims, and termed the Promised Mahdi and Messiah, to whose advent the Muslims were looking forward and who were to come and fight the forces inimical to Islam, as “the blood-thirsty Mahdi” and “the blood-thirsty Messiah”. Some of Mirza’s writings and pronouncements on this point are reproduced below:
(a)  Give up the idea of jihad now, O friends, because war and fighting in the cause of religion have now been forbidden (by Allah). The Promised Messiah, who is the leader of Religion (i.e., Mirza himself) has now arrived, and this has put an end to all religious wars. The Light of God now descends from the heavens, rendering holy war as meaningless. Whoever participates in jihad from now on wards will be an enemy of God and a rejecter of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H).   
(Tabligh-e-Risalat, op. cit. Vol. IX)
(b)  Look! I have come to you with the message that from now on all armed jihad has come to an end, and only the jihad to purify your souls remains.
(The British Government and Jihad By Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, published by Zia-ul-Islam Press, Qadian, 22 May 1903)
(c)  Ghulam Ahmad (i.e., Mirza himself) enjoins upon this party, which regards him as the Promised Messiah, that it should always desist from such unholy practice. Since God has sent me as the Promised Messiah and invested me with the garb of Jesus Son of Mary, I admonish my people to avoid making mischief.
(d)  Jihad is now totally forbidden. It was valid only when the use of the sword has necessarily to be made in the cause of Islam. Now an environment has been created when every one views the shedding of blood for the sake of religion with disdain.   
(Tohfa-e-Golraviyah)
(e)  From now on, all holy wars on earth have been stopped forever, and have come to an end. According to the Prophet’s hadith which indicates that fighting is in the path of religion would be banned after the re-appearance of Jesus Christ on earth, such fighting has been forbidden from today. Any one who now wields the sword in the cause of religion and kills infidels is guilty of disobedience to God and His Prophet (P.B.U.H)—- Now that I have come as the Promised Messiah, there is to be no armed jihad in future. We have raised aloft the white flag of peace. (Appendix to Khutbah-e-Ilhamiyah-The Inspired Discourse published by Zia-ul-Islam Press, Qadian, 1913)
Mirza thus made a persistent attempt, by either disregarding or distorting the relevant Quranic verses and the Prophet’s ahadith, to strike out of the Islamic shariah a duty that has been enjoined upon the Muslim Ummah as absolutely essential for its continued survival against forces threatening its existence from time to time.
In pursuance of the pronouncements of their “Promised Messiah” reproduced above, the successors of Mirza also adopted the same soft and permissive attitude towards the suppression of evil by force where and when warranted. This attitude, too, was characterized by the same inconsistency and opportunism that had marked the conduct of the “Leader” himself. In 1929, for example, when Ghazi Ilmuddin Shaheed assassinated Rajpal, a bigoted Hindu who had written and published an insulting and abusive treatise concerning the Prophet (P.B.U.H) of Islam, Mirza Bashiruddin Mehmood, Khalifa of Qadian, denounced this action in his speeches and ruled that killing others to avenge disrespect to any prophet was not permissible. Yet only two years later, when one of his disciples, Qazi Muhammad Ali of Nowshehra, was sentenced to death by hanging for killing one Haji Muhammad Hussain for the simple reason that the latter had stood surety for a person who had insulted Mirza Bashiruddin, both Mirza Bashir and the Qadyani Newspaper Al-Fazl praised his action as an evidence of the strength of his iman (faith) and predicted salvation for Qazi Muhammad Ali.
(iv)              Miraj (Ascension) of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)
In his Izalah-e-Awham, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad expressed the view that the Miraj of the Holy Prophet to heaven had not been “physical”, as borne out by the Quran and the hadith and firmly believed in by the mass of Muslims through out history. Instead, he averred that it had been a kashf (vision) of a very high order. He wrote further that he himself had ample experience of such visions!
(v)                Attitude about Allah’s true prophets
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad referred in slighting and disparaging terms to Jesus Christ on many occasions. In his book Dafi-ul-Bala, for example, he wrote”:
“The truthfulness of Jesus Christ was no greater than that of other truthful persons of his time. In fact Yahya (John the Baptist) was superior to him since unlike Jesus, Yahya did not drink wine nor had any immoral woman ever touched him with her hand or hair or “any un-related young woman” served him at any time (as had been with the case with Jesus Christ). That is why the Quran had referred to Yahya as Hasur (chaste)  (cf. III, 39) but not so Jesus Christ since incidents like the above did not permit this.
In the Appendix to his Nazul-ul-Massiah (Descent of the Messiah), he wrote:
“—– And the Jews have raised such strong objections concerning Jesus Christ and his prophecies that even we (Muslims) are unable to rebut them. One is thus left with no argument in favour of Christ’s prophethood beyond the fact that the Quran has called him a prophet of Allah. On the other hand, there are a number of grounds to refute his claim to prophethood,——Alas! Three of Christ’s prophecies turned out to be patently false”.
Since the sinlessness of the true prophets of Allah, and the protection vouchsafed by Allah to all their thoughts as well as deeds against error and transgression, precludes any of their predictions to prove wrong, non of the prophecies of Jesus Christ ever turned out to be incorrect. On the other hand, as already demonstrated above most of Mirza’s own predictions met this fate to the embarrassment of his followers.
To pre-empt a possible adverse reaction, amounting even to punitive measures, from the ruling British (Christian) Government of India to his fore-going disrespectful references to their sacred religious personalities and especially to Jesus Christ whom the mass of Christians believe to be the son of god, Mirza was quick to submit an apologia in the form of “A humble petition to the Exalted (British) Government” as follows:
“——- I also confess that when the writings of some Christian priests and missionaries became increasingly harsh and disrespectful about our Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H),——– I became apprehensive lest these might cause a violent reaction from the highly sensitive Muslim community— I therefore concluded, in good faith and with clean intensions, that the best strategy to avoid such a backlash and thereby prevent a possible law and order situation, would be to reply somewhat firmly to the Christian missionaries’ writings—-”.
(Appendix to Tiryaq-ul-Qulub).
Jihad Bissaif (Armed holy war)
In a period when Christian nations, especially Britain, France, and the Czarist Russia, were wrecking Muslim realms every where, Mirza declared armed jihad (holy war) as forbidden by God for all Muslims, and termed the Promised Mahdi and Messiah, to whose advent the Muslims were looking forward and who were to come and fight the forces inimical to Islam, as “the blood-thirsty Mahdi” and “the blood-thirsty Messiah”. Some of Mirza’s writings and pronouncements on this point are reproduced below:
(a)  Give up the idea of jihad now, O friends, because war and fighting in the cause of religion have now been forbidden (by Allah). The Promised Messiah, who is the leader of Religion (i.e., Mirza himself) has now arrived, and this has put an end to all religious wars. The Light of God now descends from the heavens, rendering holy war as meaningless. Whoever participates in jihad from now on wards will be an enemy of God and a rejecter of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H).   
(Tabligh-e-Risalat, op. cit. Vol. IX)
(b)  Look! I have come to you with the message that from now on all armed jihad has come to an end, and only the jihad to purify your souls remains.
(The British Government and Jihad By Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, published by Zia-ul-Islam Press, Qadian, 22 May 1903)
(c)  Ghulam Ahmad (i.e., Mirza himself) enjoins upon this party, which regards him as the Promised Messiah, that it should always desist from such unholy practice. Since God has sent me as the Promised Messiah and invested me with the garb of Jesus Son of Mary, I admonish my people to avoid making mischief.
(d)  Jihad is now totally forbidden. It was valid only when the use of the sword has necessarily to be made in the cause of Islam. Now an environment has been created when every one views the shedding of blood for the sake of religion with disdain.   
(Tohfa-e-Golraviyah)
(e)  From now on, all holy wars on earth have been stopped forever, and have come to an end. According to the Prophet’s hadith which indicates that fighting is in the path of religion would be banned after the re-appearance of Jesus Christ on earth, such fighting has been forbidden from today. Any one who now wields the sword in the cause of religion and kills infidels is guilty of disobedience to God and His Prophet (P.B.U.H)—- Now that I have come as the Promised Messiah, there is to be no armed jihad in future. We have raised aloft the white flag of peace. (Appendix to Khutbah-e-Ilhamiyah-The Inspired Discourse published by Zia-ul-Islam Press, Qadian, 1913)
Mirza thus made a persistent attempt, by either disregarding or distorting the relevant Quranic verses and the Prophet’s ahadith, to strike out of the Islamic shariah a duty that has been enjoined upon the Muslim Ummah as absolutely essential for its continued survival against forces threatening its existence from time to time.
In pursuance of the pronouncements of their “Promised Messiah” reproduced above, the successors of Mirza also adopted the same soft and permissive attitude towards the suppression of evil by force where and when warranted. This attitude, too, was characterized by the same inconsistency and opportunism that had marked the conduct of the “Leader” himself. In 1929, for example, when Ghazi Ilmuddin Shaheed assassinated Rajpal, a bigoted Hindu who had written and published an insulting and abusive treatise concerning the Prophet (P.B.U.H) of Islam, Mirza Bashiruddin Mehmood, Khalifa of Qadian, denounced this action in his speeches and ruled that killing others to avenge disrespect to any prophet was not permissible. Yet only two years later, when one of his disciples, Qazi Muhammad Ali of Nowshehra, was sentenced to death by hanging for killing one Haji Muhammad Hussain for the simple reason that the latter had stood surety for a person who had insulted Mirza Bashiruddin, both Mirza Bashir and the Qadyani Newspaper Al-Fazl praised his action as an evidence of the strength of his iman (faith) and predicted salvation for Qazi Muhammad Ali.
(iv)              Miraj (Ascension) of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)
In his Izalah-e-Awham, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad expressed the view that the Miraj of the Holy Prophet to heaven had not been “physical”, as borne out by the Quran and the hadith and firmly believed in by the mass of Muslims through out history. Instead, he averred that it had been a kashf (vision) of a very high order. He wrote further that he himself had ample experience of such visions!
(v)                Attitude about Allah’s true prophets
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad referred in slighting and disparaging terms to Jesus Christ on many occasions. In his book Dafi-ul-Bala, for example, he wrote”:
“The truthfulness of Jesus Christ was no greater than that of other truthful persons of his time. In fact Yahya (John the Baptist) was superior to him since unlike Jesus, Yahya did not drink wine nor had any immoral woman ever touched him with her hand or hair or “any un-related young woman” served him at any time (as had been with the case with Jesus Christ). That is why the Quran had referred to Yahya as Hasur (chaste)  (cf. III, 39) but not so Jesus Christ since incidents like the above did not permit this.
In the Appendix to his Nazul-ul-Massiah (Descent of the Messiah), he wrote:
“—– And the Jews have raised such strong objections concerning Jesus Christ and his prophecies that even we (Muslims) are unable to rebut them. One is thus left with no argument in favour of Christ’s prophethood beyond the fact that the Quran has called him a prophet of Allah. On the other hand, there are a number of grounds to refute his claim to prophethood,——Alas! Three of Christ’s prophecies turned out to be patently false”.
Since the sinlessness of the true prophets of Allah, and the protection vouchsafed by Allah to all their thoughts as well as deeds against error and transgression, precludes any of their predictions to prove wrong, non of the prophecies of Jesus Christ ever turned out to be incorrect. On the other hand, as already demonstrated above most of Mirza’s own predictions met this fate to the embarrassment of his followers.
To pre-empt a possible adverse reaction, amounting even to punitive measures, from the ruling British (Christian) Government of India to his fore-going disrespectful references to their sacred religious personalities and especially to Jesus Christ whom the mass of Christians believe to be the son of god, Mirza was quick to submit an apologia in the form of “A humble petition to the Exalted (British) Government” as follows:
“——- I also confess that when the writings of some Christian priests and missionaries became increasingly harsh and disrespectful about our Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H),——– I became apprehensive lest these might cause a violent reaction from the highly sensitive Muslim community— I therefore concluded, in good faith and with clean intensions, that the best strategy to avoid such a backlash and thereby prevent a possible law and order situation, would be to reply somewhat firmly to the Christian missionaries’ writings—-”.
(Appendix to Tiryaq-ul-Qulub). 
(vii) Attitude towards descendants of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)
In his various writings and posters, etc., Mirza has tried to prove himself to be a descendant of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), his successor, and his “spiritual son”. In particular, he has tried to downgrade the importance of blood relationship with the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H). Some examples:
the al (offspring) of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) does not denote any worldly relationship, but refers to those who inherit the spiritual legacy of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H). This is what the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) meant by the word al whenever he used this word, and not the transitory worldly relationship which ceases to exist after death.—–How is it possible that while Allah indicates the worldly relationship pertain to the present world only and would not remain valid on the Day of Judgment, His Apostle (P.B.U.H) should continue to emphasis a lowly physical relationship, and that too based on the offspring of his daughter (Fatima)——-”                     
(Tiryaq-ul-Qulub)
However, the foregoing principle laid down by Mirza does not apply to his own offspring. In one of his “inspirations”, for example, he claims that verse 33 of Surah XXXIIII of the Quran, reproduced below, which refers to the purification by Allah of members of the Holy Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) household from uncleanliness and sin, is applicable to his own family members as well. Some examples:
Translation: “Allah wishes to remove uncleanliness far from you, O folk of the (Prophet’s) Household, and cleanse you with a thorough cleansing”.      (XXXIII, 33)
 
Pronouncement of the entire Muslim Ummah as kafir (infidel)
When Mirza found with the passage of time that the number of person responding to his call continued to remain very thin, he declared that all those who did not believe in him and his message were infidels. Here are some of his sayings on this point:
·      God has revealed to me that every person who has received my message but has not believed in it is not a Muslim.
·      God has also said to me: “Anyone who does not follow thee, or does not pledge allegiance to thee and opposed thee, is guilty of disobedience to Allah and His Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) and is therefore hell-bound”.
·      In the official Qadyani newspaper, Al-Fadl, dated 15 December 1921, it was reported that “Mirza Sahib had not joined the funeral prayers of his own son (Fadl Ahmad) simply because he had been a non-Ahmadi”).  
Factors and forces at the back of Qadianism
It is not very difficult to identify the anti-Islam forces that were providing tacit and veiled support to the movement launched by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Following the War of Independence of 1857, and the role of the Indian Muslim community in that war, the then British Government of India had become suspicious and wary about the Indian Muslims in general. Yet it continued to treat Mirza and his party with special indulgence. The petitions and reports submitted by Mirza to the Government against some Muslim leaders and single, ulama excerpts from some of which reproduced below, show clearly that he was a special lacy of the Government of the day:
“It appears expedient to me, as a well-wisher of the British Government (of India), that the names of those misguided Muslims who, in their heart of hearts, consider British India to be a dar-ul-harb (land of belligerency), should be entered in the government records——, I have therefore prepared a list of names of persons with such rebellious minds—— who harbour secret anti-government intension—– we submit respectfully to the Government, however, that such lists should be allowed to remain in our possession as a ‘political secret’ until the Government feels the need to call for them. In the latter event, we would expect our ‘judicious-minded’ Government also to keep these lists in its safe custody as a ‘state secret’. The names and addresses are given below”   (cf., Tabligh-e-Risalat op. cit, Vol. V)
Further more, seeing that the Hindus of India were engaged in a struggle for India’s liberation from British rule along side the country’s Muslims, Mirza started writing and lecturing in favour of the scriptures and holy personalities of the Hindus in order to win the latter’s sympathies for his own party addressing the Hindu public in a lecture delivered in November 1904 at Sialkot, he said:
“It has been revealed to me that Lord Krishna was an accomplished person, the like of whom is not found in any other holy Hindu personality. He was an avatar or Prophet of his time, and was visited by the Holy Spirit (i.e., Angel Gabriel).—— God has promised that in the last period of history, He would create a ‘projection’ of Krishna, and this promise has now been fulfilled in my appearance. Besides other inspiration, I had also received this inspiration: O Krishna Gopal! Thy praise has been recorded in the Bhagvad Geeta”.                 
In his book Shahadatul Quran (Testimony of the Quran), Mirza observed that the allegiance of the British Government amounted to “half of Islam”. In the same vein, he wrote in his Tiryaq-ul-Qulub as follows:
“I have written so many books on the subject of prohibition of jihad and on allegiance to the British as to fill no less than fifty book-cases. I have also had these books distributed to far-off lands such as the Arab countries, Egypt, Syria, Kabul and Rum (i.e., Turkey). I have tried to ensure that the Muslims should become truly loyal to this government and also that the baseless tales about the Blood-thirsty Mahdi and the Blood-thirsty Messiah, as well as the violence-inciting beliefs like jihad, which corrupt the minds of the foolish ones, should be obliterated”.
Hindu expectations from the Qadianis
It was writings and declarations like the above that made the Hindus of India entertain expectations that the rise and success of the Qadyani movement would help them to counter the insistence of India’s Muslim in general upon their identity as a nation as separate from other communities inhabiting India, and thereby enable them to offer a united front to the British in collusion with the Qadyani community of India. An idea of the Hindus hopes in this behalf can be had from the following excerpts from an article by one Dr. Shankar Das Mehrubi of Lahore, which was published in the 22 April 1932 issue of the Hindu Newspaper Band-e-Matram and which was later published in the form of a pamphlet by the Qadianis themselves with a sense of pride:
“——–The most important problem now facing the country is how to create a national spirit among the Indian Muslims, who regard themselves as a separate nation. They constantly sing the praises of Arabia, and would not hesitate to name even India as an Arab land if they could.
“ In this state of despair, the only way of hope lies in the Ahmadiya movement. As more and more Muslims join this movement, they would tend increasingly to regard Qadian (which is a part of India) as their Makkah, and would eventually become loyal to India and therefore staunch nationalists. The progress of the Ahmadiya movement alone can finish off the Arab cultural influence on the Indian Muslims and spell the end of pan-Islamism.
“ ——A Qadyani Muslim believes firmly that:
1.      From time to time, God sends for the guidance of people persons who are prophets of their time;
2.      God had sent Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) among the people of Arabia in their period of moral decline;
3.      After the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), God again filled the need for a prophet and He has therefore sent Mirza Sahib for the guidance of the present-day Muslims.
Just as a Hindu convert to Islam transfers his allegiance from Rama, Krishna, the Vedas, and the Geeta to the Quran and the Arab land so is the point of view of a Muslim transformed on his becoming an Ahmadi, and his faith in the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) undergoes a gradual decline. Furthermore, his Khilafat (Caliphate), which he considered hitherto to be in Arabia and in Turkey, now shifts to Qadian. Makkah and Madina then become only traditional holy places for him. In whichever part of the world an Ahmadi may be, he turns towards Qadian for a spiritual satisfaction. Qadian then becomes the land of deliverance and salvation for him. And herein lies the secret of India’s superiority. Qadian being a part of India, and Mirza and his successors being Indians, every Ahmadi will love India.——– The day is not far-off when the Ahmadis will openly declare that they are “Ahmadi” Muslims and not “Muhammadi” Muslims.
“The Ahmadis have not sided with other Muslims in the Khilafat movement, because they wish to establish the Khilafat in Qadian rather than in Turkey or Arabia.——–All this explains why the Muslims look upon the Ahmadiya movement as being inimical to Islam as well as to Arab culture.
“ ———– Howsoever despairing this situation may be for the Muslims in general who are constantly dreaming of Pan-Islamism, it is nevertheless a matter of delight for every nationalist (Indian)”.
The relationship of mutual consideration and trust between the Hindus and Qadianis grew with the passage of time. Thus in May 1936, the then President of the All India National (Hindu) Congress, Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru, was accorded a grand welcome by the Qadianis and their volunteer corps on his visit to Lahore. When Allama Muhammad Iqbal, world-famed poet-philosopher of the East, cautioned the Muslims about the implications of this situation, several exchanges of correspondence took place between him and Pundit Nehru.
 

Qadyani against Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him

 
Qadyani tirades against Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) and his Companions
To cap all their other profanities, Mirza as well as some of his followers and admirers, had been guilty in their various writings and pronouncements of gross and brazen disrespect towards the august personality of Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) himself and those of his companions. To cite a couple of examples, one Hakim Muhammad Hussain Qadyani, who was also a relative of Mirza, mentioned in his book Al Mahdi that a distinguished member of Mirza’s household had once observed to him that the prophecies of the “promised messiah” (i.e., Mirza) far out numbered those of even the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) himself. He further had the audacity to say that the righteous Caliphs Abubakar (R.A) and Umar (R.A), were not fit even to untie the shoelace of Mirza Sahib!  (Na’uz-u-Billah) 
Reaction of the Muslim Ummah to Mirza’s claim
The claims and assertions of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadyani as explained earlier intended to strike at the very roots of the Muslim belief structure in many vital spheres: interpretations of the Quran and Hadith; wahi (divine revelation); jihad (holy war); raising alive of Jesus Christ to heaven by God and his predicted future descent to earth; and above all Mirza’s blatant violation of the concept of finality of the prophet-hood of Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) which is the cornerstone of the edifice of Muslim belief. What was more, Mirza’s character, life-style, social dealings, the vulgar and intemperate languages used by him in reference to some of the most eminent an respected Muslim personalities, his volte-faces concerning many of his claims and pronouncements the absurdity of those claims, and similar other factors all these helped preclude his being accepted even as an honourable ordinary person, what to speak of being considered worthy of the high station of prophet-hood.
Contrary to unanimous Muslim beliefs based on the Quran and the Sunnah, Mirza had declared, inter alia, that: (a) the door to wahi (divine revelation) was permanently open, and that on that basis he himself was an apostle of Allah; (b) only his own interpretations of the Holy Book were the correct ones, and all others were wrong; (c) God had given him the choice to accept or reject whatever he wished out of the current collection of the Prophet’s ahadith; and (d) anyone who did not pledge allegiance to him was outside the pale of Islam.
For all these reasons, the Muslims naturally found it impossible to accept Mirza’s ludicrous claim to prophet-hood. Since Mirza’s claims had started initially in a low key, and had gradually become more and more daring, it took the students and scholars of religion some time before they could grasp the real gravity of the threat which Mirza’s writings, pronouncements, and doings posed to the solidarity of the Islamic Ummah. Inevitably, however, the time came when Muslim ulama and intellectuals were compelled to take serious notice of the activities of this 19th / 20th century impostor, and to launch a unanimous crusade against his heretical creed. Through sustained writings and speeches, they exposed the sinister designs underlying the Qadyani movement with such force and vigour as to render it largely ineffective.
Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) was in the vanguard of this combined struggle of the ulama of India against Qadianism. He was indeed amongst the first to grasp its real evil motives, publicly denounce those motives, and warn other Muslims against them.  
The Qadyani and Lahori factions
Following this sentencing of two Qadianis to death in Kabul (Afghanistan) on grounds of apostasy (which is an offense punishable by death in an Islamic state), the Qadianis desisted for a long time from visiting Islamic countries for the preaching of their creed. Qadyani (or Ahmadi as they prefer to call themselves) missionaries are now working in some European and African countries, but in doing so they present themselves to the people of those countries as orthodox Muslims and followers of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) of Islam. In its own homeland, the Ahmadiya have split into two factions: The Qadianis and the Lahoris. The former factions believes Mirza to be a full-fledged prophet with a shariah of his own, and regards anyone not believing him to be a prophet as a kafir (infidel). The latter, however, considers Mirza to be the Mujaddid-e-Azam (the Great Reviver of Religion) only, or at best a zilli nabi (shadow prophet), and regards anyone rejecting him as a sinner but not an infidel.
These two factions have engaged in hot debate on their respective points of view from time to time. Here are two examples:
1.      Verse 81 of Surah 3 (Al-e-Imran), quoted below speaks of a covenant made by Allah with the earlier prophets to believe in and extent their support to a prophet who was to come at a later date and was to re-affirm what they themselves had brought to mankind:
“When Allah made (His) covenant with the Prophets (He said): Behold that which I have given you of the scripture and knowledge. And afterwards their will come unto you a messenger confirming that which ye possess. Ye shall believe in him and ye shall help him. He said: Do ye agree, and will ye take up My burden (which I lay upon you) in this (matter)? They answered: We agree. He said: Then bear ye witness. I will be a witness with you.    (III, 81)
The Qadianis interpret the foregoing verse as referring, not to Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) as unanimously believed by the Muslim Ummah, but to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. The Lahoris however, totally reject this distorted interpretation.
2. The Qadianis have tended to gloss over the many inconsistencies in Mirza’s ever-changing interpretations of prophethood to suit his own ends. They have, in fact, lent unquestioning credence to those interpretations, and have allowed themselves to be misguided by them. The Lahoris, on the other hand, have not only exposed the inconsistencies but have even mocked at the brain which produced them.    (Cf., Al-Fazl, official Qadyani newspaper, dated 26 February 1924, and Paigham-e-Sulh, official organ of the Lahoris, dated 27 April 1934 and 3 May 1934).
Analysis of factors responsible for Mirza’s blundering into misguidance
The most important lesson to be learnt from Mirza’s “tale of woe” is that anyone who wishes to traverse the thorny and uphill path of religion and spiritualism must do so under the guidance of an accomplished teacher and a guide. Failure to do so is apt to land the seeker into pitfalls of superstitious, delusions and misgivings etc., from which it would be well-nigh impossible for him to extricate himself. Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A) has forcefully underscored this point in the following verse of his Mathnavi:   
Translation:  “Seek a Pir (spiritual guide) (for thyself), because without a Pir this (spiritual) journey is full of hardships, fear and hazards”.

Mirza Sahib has stated at various places in his writings that he had not linked himself with any spiritual school, that he had no “spiritual father”, and that God Himself was his sole spiritual teacher and guide. He also regards this as a sign of his resemblance to Jesus Christ, and of the blessing of God. He does not, however, realize that what he considers to be a source of divine benediction for him is in fact the real tragedy of his life. He also fails to recognize the basic truth that in this world which is governed by the interplay of cause and effect in every sphere, be it secular or spiritual, every art and craft has to be learnt from a skilled teacher. Without such guidance, aspirants to spiritual accomplishment remain ever vulnerable to self-delusion, which could lead them to make claims of prophet-hood in the same manner as Bab and Baha-ullah did in Iran and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in India in the recent past. What is even worse, these ill-fated personalities were responsible not only for their own spiritual damnation, but also for misguiding large number of simple-minded and ignorant people who readily succumbed to their seemingly ”revolutionary” calls in a spirit of hero-worship. In the case of Mirza, for example, those who rallied round him as his devotees and followers took no notice whatsoever of his palpably sacrilegious and heretical “ilhamat” (inspirations). They completely ignored Mirza’s claim, inter alia, that his God had called him His son, thus violating the Quranic assertion in Surah Al-Ikhlas (“God begetteth not nor was He begotten”), or that he had claimed to be Muhammad and Ahmad, thereby refuting the Quranic pronouncement that Muhammad (P.B.U.H) was the last of the Prophets (cf. XXXIII, 40).

 

Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah’s fight against Qadianism

 
The background to Hazrat’s entry into the struggle against Qadianism is that during his visit to the Hijaz for Hajj in 1890 AD (1307 A.H.), the chaste atmosphere of the Holy Land had touched him so deeply that he had thought of permanently settling down there. However, Haji Imdad-ullah Muhajir of Makkah had advised him to return home in the following words:
“In the near future, a dangerous and evil movement is likely to raise its head in India, and you are destined to play a key role in combating it. Even if you do nothing actively against this movement, your mere presence in the country would help shield the country’s ulama against its pernicious effects”. The truth of these words was proved barely a year later, i.e., in 1891, when Mirza of Qadian announced his (initial) claim to be the Promised Massiah (Jesus Christ) – an announcement that was to culminate about ten years later in his claim to be a full-fledged prophet of God in his own right.
Two spiritual visions experienced by Hazrat around this time also deserve a mention in this context. According to one of these, quoted in Malfuzat-e-Mihriya, the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) had appeared to Hazrat (R.A) in a dream and had commanded him to effectively refute Mirza of Qadian, who was “tearing to pieces his (i.e., the Prophet’s) ahadith through distortion and misinterpretation”. 
According to the other vision, which is described in a manuscript in Hazrat’s own handwriting discovered later in his personal papers, and which occurred when Mirza challenged Hazrat to an open debate in 1900A.D, Hazrat had seen himself seated in a most respectful posture before the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) in his prayer cell, in the manner of a disciple sitting before his Shaikh (spiritual guide), while Mirza of Qadian was sitting a good distance away with his back turned to the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H). 
Hazrat construed this as a clear indication of Mirza’s defiance of the Prophet’s teachings, and this prompted him to accept Mirza’s challenge for a debate in Lahore. In Hazrat’s celebrated book Saif-e-Chishtiyai (The Chishtia Sword), which Hazrat wrote later in refutation of Qadianism, he has also described a dream which he had seen in his youth, and according to which he had successfully repulsed a sword attack by the one-eyed Dajjal (Antichrist) in three consecutive thrusts. This dream, too, he interpreted as symbolically forecasting his victorious fight against the heretical Qadyani creed later in his life.
Qadyani request to Hazrat (R.A) for support and Hazrat’s response

Hazrat’s first direct contact with the Qadyani movement occurred when Maulvi Abdul Karim of Sialkot, one of Mirza’s followers, sent to Hazrat a copy of Mirza’s published letter of invitation in which he had claimed to be the Promised Messiah and had been assigned by God with the task of reviving the din and working for the ascendancy of Islam. The letter requested Hazrat’s support in this task. In reply, Hazrat wrote that he did not accept Mirza as the “Promised Messiah”, and advised him to continue to confine his activities to the holding of debates with non-Muslims and the propagation of Islam as before, instead of making such odd claims.

Mirza’s challenge to the Mashaikh (spiritual leaders)
Recognizing the powerful influence which the mashaikh wielded on the minds of the Muslims of India in general, Mirza made every possible effort to enlist the backing of some of them for furthering his mission. However, these efforts met with no success whatsoever. In frustration, therefore, he threw out an open challenge to the entire Mashaikh community in the following words in his Ayyam-us-Sulh:
“There is no one under the sun at present who could claim to be my equal. I say to the Muslims openly and without fear: Let all those who lay loud claims to be muhaddith (master of Hadith) and mufassir (commentators of the Quran), who profess to know God, and call themselves Chishti, Naqshbandi, Suharwardi and what not, come before me (if they dare)”.
Hazrat’s book “Shams-ul-Hidayah”

Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib wrote a book titled “ Shams-ul-Hidayah Fi Isbat-e-Hayatul Masih” in 1899. In this book written in the form of questions and answers on the various relevant issued, Hazrat confirmed as unanimous the Muslim belief concerning the raising alive of Jesus Christ to Heaven, in both body and spirit, and his expected future descent in physical person to earth some time before the Day of Judgment. He did so with powerful arguments based on Quran and authentic ahadith. He showed the Qadyani beliefs regarding the “ death “ of Christ on the Cross, and coming of the Masil as the promised messiah (in the person of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad), to be utterly false. In reply to Mirza’s challenge to the country’s mashaikh reproduced above, Hazrat invited him to first explain him the real meanings of the Kalma (Translation: There is No God but Allah, and Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) is Allah’s Messenger) before his challenge would be accepted.

Commotion in Qadian
The strength of Hazrat’s arguments in Shamsul Hidayah, written in scholarly style and language, can be fully appreciated only by the truly learned reader. The book was, therefore acclaimed by ulama of all schools of thought. Among other, Maulvi Abdul Jabbar Ghaznavi, a leading scholar of the Ahl-e-Hadith school, expressed his appreciation in a personal letter addressed to Hazrat. Understandably, the book caused a stir in Qadian, where the preparation of replies to the various points raised in it was taken immediately in hand. In the reply of the above mentioned book, Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib was then asked a dozen counter-questions by Hakim Nurrudin, Mirza’s closest and most trusted associate of his own which were totally unrelated to the main point at issue, viz., the “death” and “life” of Jesus Christ, such as Wahdat-ul-Wajood, Awlia (saints), ilham, Kashf, correctness of ahadith etc.
All the questions were answered in detail with the related Hadith and Quranic verses. At the end of his reply, Hazrat posed just one counter question to Hakim Nurrudin, asking him to explain “the reality of miracles”. This question was, however, never answered.

The aforesaid correspondence was published in the form of a leaflet by Maulana Muhammad Ghazi, senior teacher in the madressah at Golra Sharif, and distributed to ulama in different parts of the country. All ulama paid glowing tributes (both written and oral) to the force of Hazrat’s arguments and the deep learning which they exhibited. The publication of the leaflet led to a widespread demand for Mirza to reply to the questions listed in Hazrat’s Shamsul Hidayah.

 

Challange

 
Mirza’s challenge to Hazrat for a written debating contest
Nettled by the aforesaid demand, Mirza threw a challenge to Hazrat, in a poster issued on 20 July 1900 and witnessed by twenty persons, to engage in an open debate with him. Curiously, however, the challenge was not for a debate on the specific disputed issue (viz., the “death” of Christ, or on Mirza’s own claims to be the masil of Christ, the Promised Messiah and a zilli nabi, i.e., shadow prophet), but for a contest in the writing of an Arabic language commentary on selected Quranic verses.
According to the poster, the proposed contest was to take place at Lahore, the capital city of Punjab Province (and at no other place), at a venue to be selected and arranged by Hazrat, or failing this by Mirza himself. A maximum of 40 Quranic verses were to be selected by ballot, all of them from one particular Surah of the Quran, and commentaries thereon were to be completed within a period of seven hours on the same day and in the presence of witnesses, without the help of any book or other assistance. A maximum of one hour would be given to each party to prepare himself for writing the commentary. The commentaries, each of which was to span at least 20 leaves (40 pages) of normal-sized paper and writing, would, after their completion and signatures by the respective contestants, be read out to three learned persons for adjudication. These persons would be nominated, and arrangement for their presence made, by Hazrat Meher Ali Shah. Mirza indicated that the names of Maulvi Muhammad Hussain of Batala, Maulvi Abdul Jabbar Ghaznavi, and Prof. Maulvi Abdullah of Lahore, or some other three neutral Maulvis would be acceptable to him for this purpose. After listening to the two commentaries, the judges would pronounce on solemn triple oath as to which one was considered by them to be superior and written “with Divine endorsement”. In the event of Hazrat’s commentary being adjudged better or even equal in merit to that of Mirza, the latter pledged to admit that the truth was on the side of Pir Meher Ali Shah. He would then burn all books containing his claims to messiah-ship and prophet-hood, and acknowledge himself to be “the damned and the disgraced one”. On the other hand, if Mirza were to be adjudged the victor, or if Pir Meher Ali Shah were to refuse to enter the contest, he would repent and pledge allegiance to Mirza and announce this through a published poster.
Hazrat was asked in the poster to convey acceptance of the challenge, along with an assurance that he would pledge allegiance to Mirza in the event of his defeat in the contest, within ten days, through a printed poster witnessed (like the poster of Mirza) by twenty respectable persons. Five thousand (5,000) copies of this poster were to be prepared and distributed by Hazrat to the interested quarters.
Mirza’s poster was accompanied by a supplement, which inter alia emphasized categorically that the commentaries to be written by the contestants would be wholly in Arabic language and would not include any portion in Urdu. It further spelt out some of the conditions mentioned in the main poster, set out arrangements for the contest in greater detail, and also made a few additional proposals. One such proposal was that the participation of Hazrat Pir Sahib in the contest would be essential in any event since he had the reputation of being superior to all other maulvis (Muslim clergy) in the knowledge of Arabic and the Quran. At the same time, however, he felt it was necessary to widen the purview of the contest and to include in it as many other ulama as possible, on the express condition that these ulama would sit at some distance from each other and from the two main contestants so that they could not provide any written or oral assistance to one another or to see what others were writing. This would help avoid the possibility of some ulama regarding themselves as superior to the Pir Sahib in the knowledge of Arabic and the Quran, and on that basis refusing to accept the defeat of Pir Sahib as binding on them. It would also ensure that the “Sign of God” was manifested with the maximum strength and glory. Mirza suggested, therefore, that the Pir Sahib should furnish a list of at least forty ulama (besides himself) who would also take part in the contest. Furthermore, he asked Hazrat to suggest a date for the contest not earlier than one month hence, in order to allow enough time to the other participating ulama to make the necessary preparations and arrangement to be present in Lahore on the date of the contest. A notice of one week was to be given by Hazrat to Mirza, through a registered letter, after fixing the date of the contest. At the end of the supplement, Mirza gave his own list of 86 eminent ulama and mashaikh from all over the country, from among whom the forty ulama other than the Pir Sahib should preferably be selected, and invited them all to be present at the contest.
Hazrat’s reply accepting the challenge
Mirza’s poster and its supplement were received in Golra Sharif on 25 July 1900. Hazrat immediately prepared a poster in reply and had it printed and published the very next day in all leading newspapers of the country. As desired by Mirza, 5,000 copies of this poster were prepared and some copies were sent to Mirza at Qadian by registered post. Copies were also mailed or sent by hand to ulama in all parts of India, including the 86 ulama listed at the end of the supplement to Mirza’s poster, and also to ulama in adjoining Afghanistan. All this generated widespread interest among the people.
In his reply, Hazrat wrote that he whole-heartedly accepted the invitation for a public contest extended by Mirza as well as the conditions listed by him, including the venue proposed for the contest (viz., Lahore). He also accepted the three ulama named by him as prospective judges. He suggested, however, as an additional condition from his side, that the two contestants should first engage in an oral debate elaborating their respective points of view. In this debate, Mirza Sahib should first try to convince the audience, through oral arguments, about the validity of his professed claims to be the Promised Massiah, the Mahdi, and a prophet of Allah. Hazrat, in his turn, should try to effectively refute those claims. The judges should then give their verdict in the light of these presentations, and the written contest in commentary proposed by Mirza should take place only after the judges and the audience had expressed their judgment about the oral debate. Furthermore, as far as written presentation was concerned, the many books written by Mirza were filled with his various claims and views, and these had already been read and commented upon in detail by various ulama and also by other fair-minded intellectuals from time to time. Because of all this Hazrat concluded, it seemed but appropriate to give first priority to an oral debate and a secondary one to a written contest.
As desired by Mirza, the 25th of August 1900,i.e exactly one month after the date of Hazrat’s answering poster, was proposed by Hazrat as the date for the contest, and Mirza was asked to reach Lahore on that date. Also as desired by Mirza, Hazrat’s poster was witnessed by twenty respectable persons, mostly ulama.

A reply to the supplement to Mirza’s poster was written, on Hazrat’s behalf and with his approval, by Maulana Muhammad Ghazi, head teacher of the madressah at Golra Sharif, and was appended to the main poster. It reaffirmed Hazrat’s readiness, as expressed in the main poster, to undertake the contest proposed by Mirza on the latter’s own conditions, with the additional condition to have an oral contest before the written one. It also added a few auxiliary observations. For example, it reproduced a selected sampling of the many absurd interpretations that had been placed on verses of the Quran by Mirza Sahib, to suit his own ends and to establish his claims to prophet-hood etc.

Qadiani’s objection to Hazrat’s proposal
Mirza had been asked from Hazrat’s side to give timely intimation about any changes that he desired to be made in the conditions of the proposed contest. However, no such intimation was received until just four days before the scheduled date of the contest (i.e.25 August 1900), when a copy of the printed letter was delivered in Golra Sharif. This letter had been written, not by Mirza Sahib himself but by Syed Muhammad Ahsan Amrohi, one of his close associates. The letter rejected, on Mirza’s behalf, the proposal made by Hazrat for an oral debate and insisted on a written contest in commentary writing only. In reply, Mirza was promptly informed through a poster issued on Hazrat’s behalf on 21-22 August 1900 by Hakim Sultan Mahmood of Rawalpindi (one of Hazrat’s devotees), that although Hazrat still considered an oral debate to be the best method of deciding the issue, he was ready for only a written contest also on Mirza’s own conditions and was therefore leaving for Lahore to participate in such a contest. A copy of the poster was sent by registered post to Mirza at Qadian. All other interested quarters, which could be contacted within the very short time then left until the date of the contest, were also notified accordingly, although the poster could not be published as widely as would have been desirable.

In their various subsequent writings and statements, Mirza Sahib and other Qadyani writers have contended that in the poster published by Hakim Sultan Mehmood, the condition for oral debate, which was unacceptable to Mirza, had been allowed to stand and had not been withdrawn by Hazrat. Because of this, they say, Mirza Sahib could not have participated in the contest under any circumstances.

 

Lahore contest

 
Huge Muslim assemblage at Lahore, venue of the contest
As the appointed date approached, hundreds of Muslims belonging to all schools of religious thought (Shi’ah, Sunni, Ahl-e-Hadith, etc.) and all walks of life started arriving in Lahore from various parts of the country. Major Islamic Madressahs and centers of learning (e.g., those in Delhi, Saharanpur, Deoband, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Multan etc.) sent their representatives and even some public servants from far-flung areas took leave of absence and came to Lahore to witness the historic contest. From the other side, members of the Qadyani community also came in sizeable numbers. In a period when people as a rule took keen interest in religious matters, the participation of Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) a renowned scholar and an eminent spiritual personality , along with the large group of distinguished ulama, in the historic debate which was to decide the fate of the leading imposter of the 19th / 20th century, generated unprecedented enthusiasm.         
Nomination of Hazrat as leader of Ulama
In this moment of destiny, ulama of various shades of thought sank their traditional differences, and unanimously declared Hazrat (R.A) to be their sole spokesman and leader. They thus displayed once again that all-pervading Islamic spirit of brotherhood which has helped unify the Muslim Ummah at every critical turn of history against its common enemies, and of which no parallel can be found in any other religion or creed.
The fact that the group of ulama which elected Hazrat as their undisputed leader on this occasion included many who were far senior to Hazrat – then only 42 years of age and barely in the tenth year of his mission of teaching and spiritual guidance-underscores the high esteem in which he had come to be held in the religious circles even at that early stage.
Hazrat’s arrival in Lahore
On leaving Golra Sharif for Lahore by train on 24th August 1900, Hazrat had two telegrams sent to Mirza at Qadian, first from Rawalpindi and then from Lala-Musa railway station situated on the rail route to Lahore. This was meant to ensure that he was duly informed about Hazrat’s expected arrival in Lahore. About 50 eminent ulama accompanied Hazrat from Golra railway station, and many more from other areas either joined him at various points en route or reached Lahore directly to join the group of welcomers. A very large gathering of people received Hazrat on his arrival to Lahore, at the railway station. They proposed to take Hazrat in a procession to the venue of the contest, but Hazrat vetoed the suggestion. Hazrat was indeed so convinced about that when Mirza finally refused to come to Lahore for the contest, Hazrat even thought of going personally to Qadian, along with a selected band of ulama, to meet Mirza in his own stronghold. He was, however, dissuaded from doing so by a majority of the Muslims, on the ground that such a course was inadvisable for various reasons.
Mirza’s failure to reach Lahore
Hazrat and his associates, as well as all others who had assembled in Lahore in large numbers to witness this epoch-making contest, waited for two full days, i.e. 25 and 26 August 1900, for Mirza to arrive. Meanwhile, the Qadianis kept giving assurances that Mirza Sahib’s arrival was being delayed only due to negotiations about the applicable terms and conditions, and that he would come as soon as these were finalized. However, Mirza failed to turn up. Many influential Ahmadis of the Lahori faction reportedly tried hard to induce Mirza to come to Lahore, but did not succeed. His main objection was that withdrawal of the condition of oral debate should have been announced by Hazrat personally instead of through his associate Hakim Sultan Mehmood. It was pointed out to him that withdrawal had been done so because Mirza’s own rejection of Hazrat’s suggestion for oral debate had been conveyed through the same procedure, i.e., through the associate Muhammad Ahsan Amrohi a proxy and not by Mirza personally. Nevertheless, Hazrat even then showed his readiness to withdraw his condition under his own signature provided Mirza did the same in respect of his rejection of that condition. Mirza, however, not only declined to do so but also refused point-blank to come to Lahore. According to him, the maulvis had conspired to have him assassinated under cover of engaging him in a debate to disprove his claim to prophet-hood. (In making this allegation, he conveniently ignored the fact that the contest had been arranged at his own initiative and not at the insistence of the maulvis! )
Reaction among Mirza’s followers
When the Qadyani representatives eventually failed to persuade their leader to come to Lahore for the debate, a wave of dismay swept through the community. Many disillusioned Qadianis deserted the party, while some others went into despaired seclusion. Many more (e.g., Babu Ilahi Bukhsh, who had previously been a long-time and zealous Qadyani activist but had later repented and rejoined the ranks of orthodox Muslims) even published posters and pamphlets lauding Hazrat’s learning and erudition and acclaiming his victory in the contest. The diehards, however, not only refused to accept defeat but in fact declared the episode to be a resounding victory for their side. Posters were splashed all over Lahore announcing “the flight of the Pir Sahib of Golra” against the latter-day Imam (i.e., Mirza), “the crushing defeat of the maulvis and the Pir by the heavenly sign”, and “the inspired tidings of the Promised Massiah being proved correct”. All this despite the fact that the entire city was witness to the prolonged presence of Hazrat Meher Ali Shah Sahib in Lahore, and to the fact that Mirza of Qadian was refusing to come there notwithstanding repeated calls to do so.
As a diversionary tactic, a delegation of the Qadyani community met Hazrat following the cancellation of the debating contest due to Mirza’s crying off, and suggested a Mubahilah (i.e., a contest of supplication to Allah between Hazrat and Mirza). According to this proposal, either of the person whose prayer was answered positively would be acknowledged as the victor. Hazrat readily accepted even this suggestion, but the Qadyani side did not pursue it further.
Qadyani preachers and orators offered a variety of far-fetched rationalization to justify the course of action adopted by Mirza. Far from producing any favourable impact, however, such rationalization merely helped to make a laughing stock of these Qadyani preachers as well as their beleaguered leaders. The upshot of all this was that neither Mirza Sahib nor his party ventured to openly face the forces of truth ever again and relied instead on clandestine and underhand tactics to promote their cause.
In still another poster, which was dated 25 August 1900 and was later published in the collection of his posters titled “Tabligh-e-Risalat” , Mirza indicated, with reference to Hazrat’s proposal for an oral debate, that in order to break the Pir Sahib’s false notions about his own prowess in this sphere, he had first thought of sending his friend and eminent scholar Syed Muhammad Ahsan Amrohi for such a debate. However, the latter had declined to do so because he had come to know through revelation that the Pir Sahib’s camp included people who had a habit of indulging in obscene abuses. While his earlier claims had been that he had the endorsement of Archangel Gabriel for his cause, and that “Allah would protect him from (the evil designs) the people”, he was now afraid of the Pathans of N.W.F.P. In the circumstances, Mirza said he had now himself compiled a booklet on the subject as a “gift” for Pir Meher Ali Shah, titled Tohfa-e-Golraviyah (The Golravi Gift). If and when the Pir Sahib replied to the contents of the booklet, the people would automatically come to know about their respective arguments and their answers.
Mirza’s new proposal
Accordingly, he sought to revive the issue once again on 15 December 1900 (4 months after the previous abortive contest) by publishing yet another poster. He said in order to settle the matter once and for all; he had been inspired by God with the fresh proposal. Under this proposal, he would, sitting in Qadian, write a commentary in chaste Arabic on the opening Surah of the Holy Quran, Al-Fateha. In this commentary, he would prove his various claims in the light of Surah alone, besides describing other truths and facts stated in Surah. Similarly Hazrat, sitting in Golra Sharif, would do the same. The two commentaries should be printed and published in book form within 70 days after 15th December 1900, so that everyone can compare them and form his judgment about their respective merits. A price of Rs.500 would be paid to Hazrat if his commentary was adjudged by three scholars to be superior to that of Mirza. The party failing to write and publish the proposed commentary within the stated period would be regarded as a liar, and no further proof for that purpose would be needed.
Hazrat’s reaction to this proposal
This new challenge had not the slightest impression on Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib (R.A). Devoted as every moment of his life was to the remembrance of Allah, spiritual contemplations, and providing guidance to knowledge thirsty humanity, fruitless activities like this had no place in a sober scheme of things. Under compulsion of circumstances, and on the insistence of other ulama, he had already spent what he thought to be more than enough attention to this matter, even disregarding the oppositions to this voiced by some Mashaikh (including Hazrat Khwaja Allah Bukhsh Sahib of Taunsa Sharif). He thus had no more time to waste on such futile exercises. While, therefore, Mirza did prepare and publish his planned commentary on Al-Fateha, under the title Ijaz-ul-Masih, (Miracle of the Massiah) within 70 days as stipulated by himself, no such thing was done by Hazrat.
As expected, Mirza’s book was found, not only by scholars but even by students, to be full of glaring errors of Arabic language, grammar and diction, and replete with plagiarized ideas and content. In one place, for example the month of Ramadan had been said to consist of 70 days; at another, yowm-ud-din (Day of Judgment) was termed as the period of the Promised Massiah (Mirza himself). Because of this, the book failed to cut any ice with the concerned circles.
Hazrat’s book “Saif-e-Chishtiyai” 
In reply to Mirza’s two books, Ijaz-ul-Masih and Shams-e-Bazighah, Hazrat wrote his now-renowned book Saif-e-Chishtiyai (The Chishtia Sword), and had it distributed free of cost to the sub-continent’s ulama and mashaikh as well as among religious schools and other institutions.
Saif-e-Chishtiyai further elaborated the arguments contained in Hazrat’s earlier book Shams-ul-Hidayah. In addition, it made nearly one hundred critical comments on the incorrect meaning and logic, errors of grammar, diction and idiom, plagiarisms and distortions in respect of Surah Al-Fateha (the opening Surah of the Holy Quran) as contained in Mirza’s Ijaz-ul-Masih. Similar criticism were made of the contents of Shams-e-Bazighah, in which an effort had been made by Mirza to spell out the meaning of the Kalimah (There is no god but Allah and Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is Allah’s Messenger) as demanded by Hazrat in Shams-ul-Hidayah and objections had also been raised to the various points made in that book (Ijaz-ul-Masih, written by Mirza Qadyani).
In Saif-e-Chishtiyai, Hazrat had inter alia predicted that since Mirza was an impostor, he would never have the privilege of visiting Madina Munawwara and paying his respects at the tomb of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), which, according to a hadith was one of the things which Jesus Christ (the real Promised Massiah) was destined to do, along with the performance of Hajj, after his future descent to earth. This prediction was proved correct when Mirza died a few years later neither performing Hajj nor visiting Madina.
Mirza passes way

The publication of Saif-e-Chishtiyai took the sails decisively out of the Qadyani movement. It helped thousands of wavering Muslims regain firm faith in the real truth. Even many Qadianis repented and discarded Qadianism after reading the book. However, Mirza and many of his diehard followers still failed to learn any lesson. In 1907, as part of his continuing vendetta against Hazrat Pir Meher Ali  Shah Sahib (R.A), Mirza made yet another of his long chain of unfulfilled predictions-one that proved to be the last that he was destined to make ever again. He predicted that Hazrat would pass away during the coming month of Jaith of the Bikrami calendar. Instead, however, he himself breathed his last during the same month of the following year !

 

HAZRAT’S ATTITUDE VIS-À-VIS THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

 
Hazrat never allowed himself to be influenced or over-awed by the power and authority of the British Government of the day, and steadfastly refused to yield to the overtures which that government made from time to time to win over his sympathies. At the same time, he firmly avoided supporting or taking part in movements, which were contrary to the dictates of the Quran and the Prophet’s Sunnah (P.B.U.H).
Refusal to participate in the Coronation Darbar of the British Emperor
In connection with the Darbar (formal installation ceremony) held in Delhi (India) in 1911 to celebrate the coronation of George V, King of England and the political Emperor of India, Hazrat also received an official invitation to participate in it. In reply, he requested to be excused from such participation. Since Hazrat had a wide following, not only in the Punjab Province and other parts of British India but also among the free tribes and Pathans of the Northwest, the Government earnestly wished him to attend the Darbar and felt truly concerned at this negative response from him. 
The British Commissioner of the Rawalpindi Division accordingly sent emissaries to Hazrat to persuade him to reconsider his decision. These included a Pathan magistrate (Muzaffar Khan) and a devotee of Hazrat named Shaikh Ahmad of Gurmani Village in the Muzaffargarh district. These persons assured Hazrat that his comfortable two-way transportation would be fully taken care of, and that all he would be expected to do was to offer his salaam (salute) to the Emperor along with other religious leaders and to pray for the stability of the British regime. Hazrat, however, stuck to his earlier decision, and wrote to the Commissioner as follow: 
“I am a dervish and attendance of royal courts has never been looked upon with favour by dervishes. Nevertheless, since the present Government has not imposed any restrictions upon the adherents of our true faith of Islam, I pray for the King from my abode here”.
British Government’s reaction to Hazrat’s refusal of its invitation
A report on the proceedings of the Darbar published later in the London Times indicated that Hazrat’s refusal to attend the Darbar was rooted in the recalcitrance of the North-West Frontier tribes and pathans whose spiritual and religious leader he was. The Government should, therefore, keep a vigilant eye on the political implications of this refusal. The Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab, Sir Louis Dean, accordingly observed in a meeting of his Council at Shimla that his government would investigate the reason for the Pir of Golra’s refusal to attend the Darbar and would “take appropriate action” in the light of the findings. Following this, the Commissioner of Rawalpindi sent a message to Hazrat (R.A) to meet him in order to exchange views on the matter. Once again, Hazrat refused to comply with the summons and asked the Commissioner to come to Golra if he wished to meet him.
This caused a good deal of concern and agitation in the Frontier and the Punjab Provinces. Some influential people met the Lieut.-Governor to apprise him of this situation, and confidential reports about it were also provided to Government by its intelligence agencies. Simultaneously, the Government’s legal Remembrances advised that non-participation in the Darbar, or refusal to be associated with the inquiry ordered by Government into this matter, by a person who was neither a government servant nor a recipient of its largesse in any other form, did not infringe any rules. In consequence of all this, the Lieut.-Governor directed the Commissioner of Rawalpindi to see Hazrat personally (in Golra) and try to end the state of agitation among the circle of his devotees. Accordingly, the Commissioner visited Golra and met Hazrat personally, along with Magistrate Muzaffar Khan and Mian Karim Bukhsh Sethi of Peshawar (a close devotee of Hazrat), in order to clear the atmosphere of perturbation and tension that had been caused by the Government’s earlier action.
Around this time, some people enviously disposed towards Hazrat decided to exploit Hazrat’s refusal to attend the Royal Darbar at Delhi in another way. They brought up the charge that Hazrat was the Pir (Spiritual leader) of the thieves and robbers living in the neighbouring villages, and that he was providing means of livelihood to dependents of escaped convicts of the area. The death of a dacoit named Jahandad, and Hazrat’s participation in his funeral prayers gave these people a further occasion to promote their vicious designs. They charged that while other ulama had refused to join the funeral prayers of this dacoit, Hazrat had readily done so. On learning about this, the Deputy Commissioner (District Officer) of Rawalpindi asked Hazrat to clarify the matter. Selected excerpts from Hazrat’s self-explanatory reply to the Deputy Commissioner are reproduced below:
         i.           If, by virtue of your office of Deputy Commissioner, you consider theft, robbery or murder of an innocent person to be evil acts, we (as Muslims) also consider these acts to be sinful on the basis of divine guidance contained in the Holy Book (i.e., The Quran) and dictates of reason.
       ii.           The aforesaid crimes can be committed or abetted only by a person who is highly ignorant or greedy.
      iii.           A Pir is expected to provide everyone coming to him with correct guidance in accordance with the Divine Book. Conversely, only a person who acts in accordance with the Pir’s guidance deserves to be called a true murid (disciple). By the Grace of Allah, we and our ancestors have always enjoined upon our murids to do good and to shun evil. Those who do not follow our guidance do not deserve to be our murids in the real sense.
      iv.          Since our Great Creator provides ample sustenance to us directly, without the intervention of criminals, we do not need to please such criminal or to be beholden to them for any help.
       v.           If you, as Deputy Commissioner, desist from encouraging evil acts because of the fear of accountability to your superiors (such as the Divisional Commissioner or the Governor), how can the fear of our Supreme Lord permit us to do the same? Furthermore, in case we behave like this, how can the thousands of knowledgeable, learned, and honest people who have entered into bonds of discipleship with us continue to be loyal to us and not sever those bonds?
      vi.           Undoubtedly, the children and widows of such criminals do, on very rare occasions, come to the langar here in search of food and other sustenance. If, however, the Government, out of sheer mercy, does not deport such people from its territory despite the criminal record of their heads of families, what is wrong with some well-to-do person providing occasional sustenance to them as human beings?
    vii.            It is also true that the dependents of such criminals sometimes do come to us for prayers according to their own way of thinking. In such cases, we pray that Allah provide them with correct guidance so that they desist from, rather than continue to do, criminal acts and escape punishment in future.
   viii.           If the Christians approach their priests for prayers in similar circumstances, and the latter pray on the lines aforementioned, would the priests be treated as abettors of crime?
      ix.           Those different persons who have forwarded complaints to you on this point have failed to realize the difference between the true murids and those who are so in the name only, and have also construed acts of charity towards the dependants of convicted criminals as amounting to the encouragement of crime. This is based obviously on either ignorance or jealousy and ill-will.
       x.            Our principle “weakness” is that we are by nature apposed to flattery and sycophancy in any form. As a result, those who seek such flattery from us are apt to be disappointed and to resort to libel against us in their reports to you.

      xi.           In case under consideration, I just happened to be present in the Jamia Mosque on a Friday. At the end of the prayers, a call was made in accordance with the usual custom that the dead body of a person was awaiting funeral prayers. I therefore joined the prayers along with the other people present in the mosque. Does this mean either that the deceased was a pious man, or that we were pleased with his misdeeds. It has also to be seen whether Islam permits the offering of funeral prayers for such a person or not. Even if the reply to this question be in the negative, those participating in the prayers cannot by any stretch of imagination be accused to be either happy at the misdeeds of the dead person or his abettors. This has never happened so far in history.

 

Western education and politics

 
Hazrat’s balanced stance on English education and interest in Islamic education
Hazrat remained perpetually conscious of the need for the establishment and survival of Islamic religious institutions. He was not opposed to the learning of English as a language and in fact regarded this as essential for success in business and related fields during the British regime. Hazrat nevertheless noted that English literature contained material palpably prejudicial to religious and national solidarity. He therefore advocated the teaching of Islamic sciences side by side with English education (if necessary, domestically or in Islamic Madressahs on a part-time basis), in order to guard against a decline in the Muslim societies Islamic consciousness and values. Hazrat strongly condemned the imbibing of such western culture as resulted in alienation from Islam or in the blind imitation of reason and logic only. In line with this view, Hazrat firmly desisted from having the children of his own family exposed to English education.
Prediction about likely impact of Western education on Muslim society
In 1896, the Muslims of Rawalpindi decided to set up an Islamia High School in the sadder area. Work on the project had, however, to be suspended in midstream because of lack of funds. At the request of Qazi Sirajuddin and Seth Mamunji (Adamjee, two leading citizens), therefore, Hazrat participated in a public meeting held as part of the fund-raising campaign, and his speech at the meeting helped mobilize all the funds needed to complete and operationalize the school project.
On the other hand, Hazrat declined to accept the request of Sahibzadah Abdul Qayyum, well-known educationist of the N.W.F.P, to extend similar active support to his plan to set up the Islamia College at Peshawar. Instead, he told the Sahibzadah “he would pray for the success of his project”. Disappointed at this lukewarm response, Sahibzadah Sahib observed in a letter to Hazrat that while other nations had emulated the early Muslims in expanding education and the sciences in their societies, the Muslims themselves had lost the educational heritage that their ancestors had left to them. Thereupon, Hazrat wrote back to the Sahibzadah as follows:
“Your observation has come as a surprise to me. Dear Sir! In the sight of Allah and His Prophet (P.B.U.H) the real sciences are the sciences of religion and Shariah (the divinely approved sciences). By the Grace of Allah, these sciences, as well as those serving their cause, are safe and well protected even now. Other nations do not posses those sciences in any measure at all. Your observation is, therefore, far from true. The charge that we have lost our heritage of education and science would be valid only if in the name of advancing the cause of Islam, we were to adopt the path of Western education, which in fact constitutes economic and material advancement, not the advancement of Islam (-Allah is the best to take care and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy-XII, 64). The future will show that education under this new system would result only in abandonment by the Muslims injunctions of the Islamic Shariah, and in their seeking worldly honour and material gain except of course those whom Allah guards from such temptations in his Supreme Mercy.
 – Our obligation is only to proclaim (the truth)! “
The Khilafat Movement of India
Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib (R.A) opposed the participation of Muslims, both in the Hindu sponsored Indian National Congress which ostensibly aimed at liberating India from British rule, and in the movements of Khilafat (Caliphate) and Hijrat (migration) launched by the Congress-dominated Jamiyat-ul-Ulama-e-Hind. The latter two movements were meant to support the cause of the Ottoman Turkish “Caliphate”, then beleaguered by European and other powers inimical to Islam. Hazrat argued that the true Caliphate of Islam had survived for only 30 (thirty) years after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), where-after it had degenerated into “sultanate” and monarchy. If, he said, the Islamic Caliphate were to be regarded as having continued to exist un-interrupted in the later periods of history, it would be as a worthy caliph, which could be patently wrong. On this basis, Hazrat regarded the Turkish regime as a sultanate and not as Caliphate, and therefore undeserving of the support of Muslims living in other countries (e.g., India) as a “sacred cause”. At the same time, he did back the provision of all possible help to Turkey as a fellow-Muslim state, and himself donated the valuables of his household as well as some horses belonging to the shrine at Golra for this purpose.
Hazrat’s stance on this point was initially opposed strongly by leaders of the Khilafat movement, and several newspapers run by these forces wrote articles and editorials denouncing it. With the passage of time, however events proved his stance to be fully correct, and most of those initially against it were compelled one by one to change their views and to join anti-Congress forces.  Muslims who had sold their properties at throw-away prices and migrated to other countries eventually had to return.
In 1920 when Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, the learned editor of the then well known Urdu daily newspaper (The Zamindar), came to Golra Sharif to discuss the issues of Khilafat and migration, Hazrat-e-Ala placed before him his point of view  which rested on the principles of Shariah. The Maulana kept quiet but before taking his leave he said to Hazrat Pir Meher Ali: “ I had actually come to this court, ruled as it is by men of Allah, to plead for a state for the Muslims of India.” Hazrat replied: “ I pray to All Mighty Allah and ask you to join me in the prayer that He may grant freedom to the Muslims of this country and give them a government which can be of real service to Islam.”
Aversion to politics
As mentioned before, Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib (R.A) never took part in active politics. On several occasions he was requested to lend support to someone in the elections for the provincial assembly but he refused and made it clear that in his opinion such activities had nothing to do with Islam and as such he did not want to meddle in them.
Hazrat-e-Ala Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) used to say: “ I do not approve of the visits of the rulers to this place nor do I wish to include them among my disciples. If I did so then those in need would come and request me to put in a good word for them. That is something I do not like but nor do I wish to disappoint them”.
For someone who wishes to stay aloof from material wealth and temporal power there are no other options. This was the reason he always tried to keep himself away from the government officials and the rulers of princely states. But in spite of all his efforts many of them affiliated themselves with him, joined his fold and received blessings from him. Prince Habib Ullah, who afterwards became the ruler of Kabul, secretly approached Hazrat-e-Ala for blessings and stayed with him for two days. No one came to know about him. The only person who ever learned about his visit and that too incidentally, was a servant of Hazrat. It so happened that he was witnessing the royal procession of Ameer Habib Ullah pass through the Chandni Chowk, Delhi. Suddenly had a glimpse of the Ameer and at once recalled that he was the same person he had served tea for two days at Golra Sharif. Similarly, Nawab Sadiq Khan Abbasi, the Ameer of Bahawalpur state, held Hazrat in great respect and wanted to become his disciple, but his wish did not materialize. Nawab Wali-ud-daulah, a noble of Hyderabad Deccan was a disciple of Hazrat. When he was advised by his physician to go on a voyage for reasons of health he sought Hazrat’s permission for a trip to London. Hazrat’s reply to him was highly significant. He advised him to go for Hajj. The Nawab did accordingly and soon after performing Hajj died in the sacred city of Madina. For an hour and half his dead body, ready for burial, lay in front of Rauza-e-Tayyeba, the mausoleum of Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him). People who passed by his dead body felt envious of the deceased. Hazrat Pir Syed Jamaat Ali Shah of Alipur who happened to be there, observed: “O people, see how wonderful are the results of affiliation with a man of God”. 
 

Hazrat’s scholarly eminence

 
The fame of Hazrat’s debating skills and scholarly eminence had spread far and wide right from his student days. In course of time, prominent ulama from all schools of thought testified to Hazrat’s superiority in these fields, especially after the publication of his books on various subjects and also during his memorable battle against Qadianism.
The order and aptness of Hazrat’s questions during the debates often used to surprise the opponents and leave them at a loss for a convincing reply. On other hand, his rejoinders to the opponents, and objections used to be instant and comprehensive. Endowed with extraordinary intelligence, he used to resolve the most intricate issues without a moment’s deliberation or mental effort. Many times, he used to fling back at the opponent some aspect of latter’s own objection with arguments that defied a credible response. Furthermore, his observations during the debates were an exquisite blend of erudition and simplicity that made them easily clear to scholars and laymen alike.
In general, Hazrat spoke in a soft and pleasant manner. His voice was loud and clear enough to be heard equally clearly by all sections of the audience. Those present would feel as if under a sweet spell. He spoke in a measured tone, enabling the audience to understand every word of what he said. Those coming to him with diverse questions thus would almost invariably return convinced and re-assured from his presence. A selection of the answers that he gave to the questions posed to him on certain issues is given below:
Reply to the objection of an American clergyman  

An American clergyman on a visit to Golra Sharif once raised this objection in Hazrat’s presence: “The Muslims claim that the Quran contains a reference to everything in the universe. Yet it makes no reference to Imam Hussain (R.A), even though it kept being continuously revealed during the first six years of the Imam’s life. This is a surprising omission, considering the supreme sacrifice that the Imam offered in the cause of Islam. Hazrat asked the clergyman to quote any part of the Quran so that his objection could be responded to. When the latter recited Quran’s opening ayah before reading a substantive portion of the Quran, Hazrat asked him to stop there. He then drew the cleric’s attention to the fact that from the point of view of  “Abjad”, the number of the various letters of the words totals to 786.

Hazrat thus demonstrated that a reference to Syedna Imam Hussain (R.A), his brother Syedna Imam Hassan (R.A), the years of their martyrdom etc. appeared in the very first verse of the Quran.
This discourse of Hazrat left the American clergyman amazed at the depth and breadth of the research that Muslim scholars and divine had carried out over the centuries into various aspects of their Holy book which they staunchly believed to be the Word of God Himself.
Order of Caliphate of the Four Righteous Caliphs of Islam
Hazrat once made the following fine derivation about the sequential order of caliphate of the four Righteous Caliphs (i.e., Syedna Abubakar, Syedna Umar, Syedna Usman, Syedna Ali) from the Quranic ayah   
Translation: “Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is the Messenger of Allah. And ‘those with him’ are ‘hard against disbelievers’ and ‘merciful among themselves’. Thou (O Muhammad) seest them ‘bowing and falling prostrate in worship’ (XLVIII, 29).
The words “those with him”, he said, referred to Syedna Abubakar (R.A) “ hard against disbelievers” to referred to Syedna Umar (R.A), “merciful among themselves” to Syedna Usman (R.A), and “bowing and falling prostrate” to Syedna Ali (R.A).
Replies to objections about the “Bahishti Darwaza” (Door to Paradise)        
The door situated immediately towards the south of Baba Fariduddin Ganjshakar’s (R.A) grave at Pakpattan Sharif is popularly known as Bahishti Darwaza, i.e., door to Paradise. The appellation is based on the belief that anyone passing through this door becomes entitled to enter Paradise after his death. The door is kept locked throughout the year, and is opened only during the annual Urs of Hazrat Baba Sahib enabling all visitors to the Urs to earn the privilege to passing through it.
Hazrat (R.A) used to attend Hazrat Baba Sahib’s Urs almost every year. During his stay there, non-conformist ulama often asked him about the validity of the aforesaid popular belief concerning the door in question. Hazrat used to respond to the question in different ways, each time on a convincing but original basis. On one such occasion, he referred to an authentic saying of Hazrat Nizamuddin Awlia (R.A), chief Khalifa (successor) of Hazrat Baba Sahib, on the subject. Hazrat Nizamuddin had once stated that he had seen the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) passing physically and in person through the said door on the night of Hazrat Baba Sahib’s Urs, and had also heard him say that “Who ever entered this door attains peace (which was a characteristic of Paradise)”.

On another occasion, a Maulvi objected to the visitors to the shrine shouting “Farid, Farid” along with certain other words including Allah and the Prophet (P.B.U.H), and asked why they did not confine themselves to say “ Allah, Allah” only. Hazrat invoked the questioner’s attention to the Divine pronouncement in the following Quranic Ayah:

Translation: “Therefore remember Me, I will remember you, give thanks to Me, and reject Me not”. (II, 152)
He then added that since Hazrat Baba Fariduddin Ganjshakar had engaged himself in the constant remembrance of Allah throughout his life, Allah was simply rewarding him now, in accordance with His aforesaid promise, by making people remember him as His own proxy.

This, Hazrat said, has been happening for the past 700 years, and would go on until the Final Day (The Day of Judgment).

 

“Wahdat-ul-Wajood” and Hazrat Syedna Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A)

 
Hazrat (R.A) was a firm believer in the celebrated but rather controversial concept of Wahdat-ul-Wajood (Ultimate Unity of Being) pioneered by Shaikh Muhyuddin Ibn-ul-Arabi (R.A). His belief in the concept was based on deep study and contemplation and also on personal spiritual experience. In course of time, he developed into one of the leading authorities of his time on this subject, and it figured prominently in his teachings as well as writings.
Speaking on this subject, Hazrat Syedna Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) used to say that the fact that Archangel Gabriel had appeared to the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) in human form on several occasions had produced a persuasive effect on his mind from the very beginning in favour of the concept of Wahdat-ul-Wajood. He had also carefully studied the objections raised to the concept by the exponents of the contrasting concept of Wahdat-ush-Shahud (Unity of Perception or Vision), but arrived at the firm conclusion that Wahdat-ul-Wajood was concept based on truth.
The philosophy of “Wahdat-ul-Wajood” could further be explained in the light of the Quranic verses stressing upon the Omnipresence of God.
Translation: “He is the Beginning, He is the End; He is the One Evident, He is the One Hidden and Concealed.”    (III, 75)
The distinction between God (Creator) and man (creation) still remains
This statement by Muhyuddin Ibn-ul Arabi Shaikh-e-Akbar sums up the spirit of Islamic philosophy. Although he is regarded a staunch follower of Wahdat-ul-Wajood, he says:
Translation: “In all its ebb and flow, God, remains His self – the Master; and man despite all his success remains subservient.”
Man as a bashar becomes Masjood-e-Malaika (capable of earning a bow from the heavenly bodies) when he practices: <ayat> (the Divine principle) and evolves as a true reflection of Siffat-e-Ilahiya (the characteristic of God). When forces of this universe bend their heads before him they are rather bowing before Him (God) and not before man.
Divine self – manifestations is a perpetual process. He is the Real One. A wave is a wave; when it rises or when it falls it merges into the sea becomes part and parcel of the sea which proves that a wave dose not annihilate, rather it adopts a new shape. The real existence is of Him and when these manifestations (universal moods of Pure Being) are over, He alone remains. The seed of a banyan tree is a small one it is said that this seed contains fifteen thousand branches and fifteen thousand leaves, it does not seen to be acceptable to the intellect. The seed is there hidden while branches and leaves are manifest and apparent. Seed has its own rules; leaves have their own characteristics. God is God, man is man.

Shah Wali Ullah (R.A), one of distinguished personalities in the Silsila Naqshbandia and was basically a believer in the concept of “Wahdat-ush-Shahood” has expressed that if required he could well explain the philosophy of Wahdat-ul-Wajood in the light of Quran and Hadith.

Wahdat-ul-Wajood and Wahdat-ush-Shahood – Hazrat’s viewpoints
Hazrat attempted to bridge the differences between adherents of afore-mentioned two apparently divergent concepts by advancing the following points of views:
(a)              ‘Wahdat-ush-Shahood’ represents the initial stages of suluk (spiritual journey), and the basic essence of faith (nafs-e-iman), whereas ‘Wahdat-ul-Wajood’ constitutes the acme of suluk and the perfected state of faith (kamal-e-iman).
(b)              Belief in Wahdat-ul-Wajood was neither incumbent upon the followers of earlier apostles of Allah, nor is it binding upon the Ummah of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) of Islam.      
(c)               Wahdat-ul-wajood represents the vision and clairvoyance of the elect among the sufia, and it is related to inner vision rather than to outward and oral pronouncement only.    
One Maulana Sufi Abdul Rahman of Lucknow had declared, in his book titled Kalimatul Haq (The Word of Truth), that belief in Wahdat-ul-Wajood was binding upon the Muslim Ummah in general, in the same way as belief in the Kalima-e-Tayyibah was, and that non-belief in it therefore constituted heresy. Hazrat effectively disproved this point of view in his book Tahqiq-ul-Haq Fi Kalimatul Haq. At the same time, in line with his moderate and tolerant approach, he refused to denounce Maulana Abdul Rahman to be “misguided” and heretic as many other contemporary scholars had chosen to do. Instead, he attributed the Maulana’s views to be due to an overpowering spiritual state beyond his control.
In the same connection, Hazrat referred to a discussion once held on the subject at Sial Sharif in the presence of Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin (R.A). during this discussion Hazrat said, he first presented the objections raised to Wahdat-ul-Wajood by such advocates of Wahdat ush-Shahood as Hazrat Mujaddid Alf-e-Saani and Hazrat Alauddawlah Samnani. He then followed it up by answering each of those objections on the basis of convincing arguments. This greatly pleased Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin (R.A), who exhorted Hazrat to study Shaikh Ibn-ul- Arabi’s book “Futuhaat-e-Makkiyah” (the Meccan Revelations), in which the Great Shaikh had expounded his concepts in extensive detail. The constant in-depth study of the book coupled with the spiritual attention of his Murshid, helped Hazrat in comprehending the multifarious abstruse facets of the concept, and eventually enabled him to gain outstanding mastery over it.
 

Fatuhat e Makkiya

 
Hazrat’s in-depth study of Shaikh Muhyuddin Ibn-ul Arabi’s (R.A) “Futuhat-e-Makkiyah”
Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin (R.A) of Sial Sharif, Hazrat’s Murshid, had exhorted him emphatically during his lifetime to make a deep study of Shaikh –e-Akbar Muhyuddin Ibn-ul Arabi’s masterpiece on the subject of Wahdat-ul-Wajood, viz., Futuhat-e-Makkiyah. To be ale to comply with this directive, Hazrat tried during his stay in Lahore to acquire a copy of the book in question. On making extensive inquiries, he found out that the only copy of it available in Lahore was in the possession of a local leather merchant, Khwaja Karim Bukhsh. In view of the highly abstruse contents of the book, however, the latter was prepared to spare the book, even for study at his house, only to someone who could correctly read just one page of it and to explain its meaning. Since Hazrat was able to meet this condition to Khwaja Karim Bukhsh’s satisfaction with respect to not just one but several pages of the Futuhat, the gentleman agreed to lend the enabled Hazrat to make an in-depth study of the celebrated book, after which he duly returned it to its owner.
Acquisition of the book “Futuhat-e-Makkiyah”
Because of Hazrat’s deep and abiding interest in the subject of Wahdat-ul-Wajood (the central theme of Futuhat), his desire to “own” a copy remained with him, and the search for it was renewed during his stay in Makkah. On inquiry, the book was found to be available with a local book-seller, but its price (40 Saudi Riyals) was beyond Hazrat’s means. While he was still wondering how he could raise the required amount, an Afghan stranger met him in the Holy Kaabah and voluntarily offered to him the exact sum of 40 Riyals as a gift. When Hazrat asked him the reason for doing so, the stranger was unable to give any particular reason, beyond confessing that it had just occurred to him to present this money to Hazrat. On the stranger’s insistence, therefore, Hazrat accepted the money as a bounty from Allah, and used it to buy the book for permanent possession.
Hazrat’s teachings and writings on Wahdat-ul-Wajood
Such was Hazrat’s command of the subject of Wahdat-ul-Wajood, and of the writings of Shaikh Muhyuddin Ibn-ul Arabi, popularly known by the honorific title of Shaikh-e-Akbar (The Great Shaikh), that for ten years on end he gave lessons in Futuhat-e-Makkiyah, and in the Shaikh’s other important book on the subject, ‘Fusus-ul-Hikam’ (Bezels of Wisdom) to scholars desirous of comprehending the deeper aspects of Wahdat-ul-Wajood. He also wrote voluminous book of his own in exposition of the concept titled Tahqiq-ul-Haq Fi Kalimatul Haq.
During the compilation of the aforesaid book Tahqiq-ul-Haq, Hazrat (R.A) had revealed that during his compilation of the book, he had had a distinct intuitive feeling that the spirit of his respected Murshid, Hazrat Khwaja Shamsuddin (R.A) who had passed away 15 years earlier, was constantly present at his side and guiding him in proper explanation of important aspects of Wahdat-ul-Wajood.
This assertion is eminently understandable, since Hazrat ranked among those accomplished personalities about whom Shaikh Musleh-Uddin Saadi (R.A) of Shiraz (Iran), the great Persian poet and sufi, has written as follows:
Translation: “The eternal sound of ‘ alast’ , i.e., the covenant taken by Allah from all humanity in the world of spirits – still rings in their ears and they are still intoxicated by its influence”.

The following Punjabi couplet of Hazrat himself also provides a clear clue to the loftiness of his spiritual position in relation to Wahdat-ul-Wajood:

Translation:
Kun-fayakun (Be and It became) is a matter of only yesterday;
we had in fact cultivated our love (for Allah) long before that;
Thou art and “I” were nowhere in sight at the time 
when the “M” (of Muhammad (P.B.U.H) bore witness (to the existence of Allah);
We can still see (in the far-off distance of eternity)
the thickets, plants and mosses (of the pre-creation era);
O Meher Ali ! The Creator and the created then sat in each other’s company only, 
because there was a desire on both sides to do so.
These couplets indicate that Hazrat’s spiritual vision and “memory” went back to the age of Absolute Unity when nothing whatever had any tangible or even intangible existence besides Allah, and to the “world of spirits” which was brought into being by Allah long before He created other physical creation. For someone like him, therefore, the recalling of the spiritual presence and backing of his eminent Murshid during his writing of a book barely 15 years after the latter’s physical passing away, could hardly present much of a problem.
Fakir Muhammad of Kot Atal – a devotee of Hazrat (R.A)
Faqir Muhammad Amir of Kot Atal (District Dera Ismail Khan ) was an accomplished dervish. Belonging originally to Jhelum, he received his early education in Dera Ismail Khan and after completing it became a disciple of Khwaja Muhammad Usman Naqshbandi of Musa Zai. Making steady spiritual progress, he eventually became the Khalifa (deputy) of his Shaikh and carried his message far and wide. In the final stages of his progress, he reached a point which conflicted with the maslak (method) of his Shaikh. While the Shaikh was an adherent of Naqshbandia school, and was therefore a believer in Wahdat-ush-Shahud (Unity of Perception), Muhammad Amir started being involuntarily attracted to Wahdat-ul-wajood instead. The Shaikh first tried to bring him back to his point of view through admonition and prayer, but despairing of the success of his efforts declared him to be misguided and lost beyond redemption. On his part, Muhammad Amir found himself caught in a situation beyond his own control. He therefore set out in search of some means to get out of that plight.
At some stage, Faqir Muhammad Amir came to know about Hazrat, and betook himself to Golra Sharif to meet him. He first went to Hazrat Baba Fazl Din (R.A), who was then the reigning head of the shrine, but did not state the purpose of his visit. From there he proceeded to see Hazrat, whom he found engaged in conversation with his father, Hazrat Ajji Sahib. On seeing Muhammad Amir, Hazrat quietly handed to him the book Kashkol-e-Kalimi (The Begging Bowl of Musa, Kalimullah) which he was then holding in his hands, without saying anything else. As Faqir Sahib glanced through the book, his problem was instantly solved by its contents. This greatly elated him, and he requested Hazrat to accept him as his disciple. Hazrat hesitated first, but on his insistence agreed to do so. Besides prescribing the required recitations, Hazrat exhorted him never to show disrespect to his Murshid, Khwaja Muhammad Usman Naqshbandi, to visit the latter at least once a year to pay his regards to him, and, after the latter’s passing away, to make it a point to attend his Urs. The immediate aftermath of this episode was that Faqir Muhammad Amir lost many of his erstwhile followers, while his Murshid was furious at his conduct. He patiently endured all this for about a year, and then returned to Golra Sharif to pay his respects to Hazrat. Hazrat accorded him permission to enroll disciples on his own, as a result of which his circle of disciples expanded quickly by the grace of Allah. He used later to accompany Hazrat on latter’s annual visit to Pakpattan Sharif in connection with Urs of Hazrat Baba Fariduddin Ganjshakar (R.A).
The published collection of Hazrat’s letters, titled Maktubat-e-Tayyibat” contains few letters written to Hazrat by the Faqir Sahib of Atal, and Hazrat’s replies thereto, which provide an inkling of the distinguished spiritual station which the Faqir Sahib was able to attain under Hazrat’s guidance. These letters from Faqir Sahib of Atal and the replies of these letters from Hazrat himself provide a comprehensive explanation of the concept of “Wahdat-ul-Wajood”.
In one of these letters, the Faqir Sahib sought Hazrat’s guidance as to whether, in the spiritual state that he had reached by then, he should focus his attention on the sifat (Attributes) that were flowing from the Divine Being or on the Being Himself, so as to escape the feeling of uncertainty and ambivalence that he found himself in.
 

Hazrat’s views on Sama

 
Singing in melodious voice is generally called “ghina”, whereas listening to holy verses thus sung is commonly termed as “sama”. Sama is of two kinds: (1) that sung to the accompaniment of musical instruments; and (2) that sung without such instruments. The impact of music on the human mind and the emotion is universally acknowledged. It is also recognized that this impact can be good as well as bad, depending on the nature of content and the manner and style of recitation. It is for this reason that sama, especially that accompanied by musical instruments as an aid to spiritual development, has for long been a controversial issue between the ulama and the Sufi schools of Islam, as well as between some Sufi schools themselves. One school of thought regards instrumental sama as totally forbidden under the Islamic shariah because of its potential for purposeless luxury and its traditional association with sport and fun. An other school legitimizes sama without musical instruments provided the recitations are religious or mystical.
Many eminent ulama and mystics have expressed their views at some length on this issue in some of their writings. These include: Imam Al-Ghazali (R.A) in his renowned books “Ahya-ul-Ulum” (revival of the sciences) and “Kimiya-e-Saadat” (the Alchemy of bliss); Hazrat Daata Ganj Bukhsh (R.A) in his  “Kashf-ul-Mahjub” (disclosure of the hidden); Shaikh Abdul Haq Mohaddis of Delhi in his “Madarij-un-Nabuwat” (grades of the Prophethood); These books contain detailed discussions on the subject of sama and the requirements that should be observed in connection with it both by the qawwals (people who recite qawwali in Mehfil-e-Sama) and the listeners. The sum total of these discussions is that music accompanied by instruments is not prohibited but is disallowed if the recitations are improper in content, but permissible if they are free of improprieties and morally questionable content.
The Chishtia view-point on sama
Ulama and mystics belonging to the Chishtia school of Sufism have sought to prove the permissibility of sama on the basis of about a dozen authentic ahadith of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H).
Traditions of the Chishtia indicate that Hazrat Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti (R.A) of Ajmer, who is historically credited with pioneering the propagation of Islam in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent, and who is said to have launched his missionary endeavour in this part of the world at the bidding and with the blessings of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), had spiritually obtained the Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) permission for the use of instrumental sama as part of his mission. This was because the people of India were culturally attuned to instrumental music and Hazrat Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti (R.A) felt that presenting Islam teachings in a manner that responded to their cultural needs would help this great faith being accepted by them with relative ease. This hope turned out to be well placed and Islam spread in the sub-continent with remarkable speed through the efforts of Hazrat Khwaja (R.A) and his eminent successors.
Hazrat’s view about Sama
Since Hazrat belonged primarily to the Chishtia school (Silsila), he regarded music and sama to be religiously permissible although not indispensable for the “Sufi”. Love of music was indeed part of his nature, and he used to sing mystical verses of eminent poets to warm up his heart and when he found himself alone in deserted places. His life record shows that in his early life he used to listen to qawwali (the Urdu term for sama) with musical instruments, but switched over to qawwali without instruments as he advanced in age and spiritual experience. This may be explained by the fact that artificial “aid” such as musical instruments are apt to become redundant as spiritual elevation matures and stabilizes. Indeed, when the Awlia-Allah attain the highest spiritual station of “Mushahida” (direct perception of the Supreme Being) and “fana-e-kamil” (complete annihilation in Allah), they no longer remain in need of external factors for their advancement. Some Awlia-Allah are known to rely on such factors even after attaining the aforesaid station but they do so for the benefit of their disciples (Murid) and not because they themselves need those.
In one of his letters, Hazrat has described his stance with respect to sama to be in line with the following verses of the Persian poet and Sufi Shaikh Musleh-Uddin of Shiraz:
Translation: “I will tell you what sama is, O brother, provide I know about him who listens to it”
 
1. Impact of Sama on an Anglo Indian railway guard
Once when Hazrat was traveling by train at night outside Golra, he asked his qawwals Bakht Jamaal to sing the following Punjabi verses in a tune appropriate to the time of night:   
Translation: ” Look my friends! What has my beloved done to me? He has snatched away my heart from me and then gone away”    
2. A Hindu yogi (jogi) embraces Islam
A Hindu yogi, Laddha Ram, belonging to Jalalpur in District Jehlum, once met Hazrat at a place called Sidhpur, and listened to qawwali in his presence. At the end of it, he inquired of Hazrat:
“If all this worldly show constitutes “colour”, what then is the “colourless”? In reply, Hazrat recited following Hindi verse:   
Translation: 
“He who crosses the “limit” is a Wali, He who crosses the “limitless” is a Pir (spiritual guide); “
“He who crosses the “limit” and the “limitless” qualifies to be called as a Fakir (mendicant in the path of Allah).”
The yogi was deeply moved by this verse full of inner meanings and burst into tears. He then added: If a man crosses both limit and the limitless, he becomes a slave of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H). Sometime later, he embraced Islam at Hazrat’s hands along with a number of his disciples. Hazrat prescribed the Darud Sharif (invocation of blessings on the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)) as a regular recitational assignment for him.  
3. Some incidents of Hazrat’s ecstatic spells
Most of Hazrat’s ecstatic spells culminated in the performance of a “sujdah” (devotional prostration), which has been rightly termed as Miraj-ul-Momineen (the spiritual “ascension” of the believers). Very often these prostration were so lengthy as to last the whole night-long. On record of his having remained in tears for long periods, having experienced loss of consciousness and sometimes having stood up as a mark of respect to some invisible being. However, as he came progressively closer to ever-higher spiritual stations, these spells of ecstasy abated in both frequency and intensity. Towards the end all that he used to do even at the height of the ecstatic condition was to jerk his right hand once or twice. When such a state prevailed any one who happened to touch that hand burst into tears. On one occasion, such a state lasted for several days. It reportedly started when during a qawwali session in Pakpattan, the musicians recited the following Persian verse of Khwaja Hafiz of Shiraz:   
Translation: 
“The night is dark, the tidal wave threatens (to swallow us), and a whirlpool bars our way (on all sides);”
” How can those who stand in ease and comfort on the shore understand our position (caught as we are in mid-stream)? ” 
Diwan Ghayas-ud-din Ajmeri’s visit to Golra
Hazrat Diwan Ghayas-ud-din, then head of the shrine of Khwaja Moin-ud-din Chishti (R.A) at Ajmer, once paid a visit to Golra and spent a few days with Hazrat there. During this visit, he was deeply impressed by Hazrat’s erudition, piety, and spiritual eminence. From Golra, he went to Peshawar for a short stay. Most of the ulama of Peshawar subscribed to the Naqshbandia school of Sufism and several centers of their jurists existed in the neighbourhood in that city. During his stay in Peshawar, the Diwan Sahib was challenged by the local ulama to a debate on the sama and threatened violence if the challenge was not accepted. Visibly un-nerved by this unexpected development, Diwan Sahib sent a message to Hazrat to help him out of the predicament. Hazrat, who had tried unsuccessfully to dissuade Diwan Sahib from going to Peshawar on the ground that the people there were not well versed in the delicacies of respectful behaviour towards venerable personalities, was at first reluctant to oblige him. When, however, Diwan Sahib invoked the sacred name of Hazrat Khwaja Moin-ud-din Chishti (R.A) to back his request, Hazrat did agree to go there.
Hazrat’s debate with N.W.F.P ulama on the subject of sama
About 50 ulama of Peshawar accompanied by their pupils and admirers and carrying reference books of all descriptions, assembled on a morning in a large group at the place where Diwan Sahib was staying. They started by declaring, with references from some books that ghina (music) was totally forbidden in Islam and those indulging in it therefore were guilty of kufr (infidelity). They then called upon Hazrat to advance arguments to the contrary if he could. Hazrat responded by saying that since the point raised by them boiled down to the difference between Iman (faith) and kufr (unfaith), the opposing group should first convincingly prove that they indeed had incontrovertible faith in Tawhid (Unity of Allah) which was the foundation of faith, and should do so strictly in the light of the Quran and Hadith. When they did so and set out in detail the beliefs of orthodox sunni Muslims, Hazrat presented a comprehensive analysis of the views of the various major schools (e.g., the Ashairah, the Mataridiyah, and Hanafia, among the sunnis; and the Imamia, the Zaidia, and Mu’tazilah, among the shi’ites) on the subject. He then proceeded, first to endorse and then to contradict each of these viewpoints one by one. His critical analysis on these view points were so masterly that when he argued for the righteousness of one of them, all those present in the debate fully endorsed his stance. When, on the other hand, he advanced arguments to disprove the same viewpoint, every one was converted to the contrary posture and firmly rejected it along with Hazrat. This amazing display of scholarly prowess and analytical skill went on for three consecutive days, and left the assemblage of ulama who witnessed it virtually dumb-founded. At the end of it all, Hazrat enquired of the N.W.F.P ulama as to what their viewpoint in the matter now was. In reply, Maulvi Qazi Qudratullah, speaking for the rest of the ulama, confessed that their view point was the same as Hazrat’s, and that since Hazrat considered sama to be permissible, they also were now of the same view.
Unfortunately, no record could be kept of Hazrat’s discourses on this particular  occasion, which represented a treasure house of knowledge for those interested in the subject of sama and its related topics.
Diwan Sahib’s “bai’at” at the Hazrat’s hands
Hazrat Diwan Ghayas-ud-din Sahib of Ajmer Sharif, at whose invitation Hazrat had come to Peshawar to take part in the debate with NWFP ulama, was deeply moved by the flow of Hazrat’s arguments and his opponents discomfiture thereat, and exclaimed “Subhaan-Allah” (Glory of Allah!) with tears of emotion in his eyes and then added: 
“The light of Hazrat Khwaja Moin-ud-din Chishti (R.A) at Ajmer has come to my aid”.
When, at the end of Hazrat’s concluding discourse, the ulama present advanced to shake hands with him to bid farewell, and one of them requested Hazrat to grant bai’at to him, Diwan Sahib said it was his right to be the first to get this honour. After some hesitation, Hazrat agreed to accord bai’at to Diwan Sahib. Maulana Qazi Qudratullah, mentioned above, also sought the same privilege and received it after conceding, in response to some remark of Hazrat, that what he had witnessed on this occasion was a display of (knowledge “from God’s own presence”), the like of which he had never seen before. Qazi Sahib was a highly eminent Mufti (deliverer of fatawa) and wa’iz (preacher) in his own right and had a large following in the NWFP and Afghanistan, where he was known by the popular “Qazi Qadru”. Since then, thousands of people have entered the ranks of Hazrat’s devotees, and devotees of the Golra shrine from this area.
 

Some trying moments in Hazrat’s life

 
 
It is immutable law of nature that every human endeavour to scale heights of eminence and distinction has to fight against tests, trials, and obstacles of various sorts, which are sometimes of the highest severity. As Hazrat advanced on the path of spiritual progress, and the fame of his scholarly and spiritual excellence started spreading far and wide, this law came inevitably into play. It took a variety of forms: envy, jealousy, spite, malice, and in some instances sheer enmity for no rhyme or reason. Some of the incidents that this led to are briefly described below:
i)             A person who harboured feelings of deep jealousy and malice towards Hazrat tried a couple of times to take his life. He first sent a hired assassin for the purpose, who managed to hide under Hazrat’s bed while he was away for Isha (late evening) prayers in the mosque. As Hazrat returned and lay down on his bed, however, he was overcome by sheer awe and ran away.
ii)            On another occasion, a man deputed again by the same person approached Hazrat with a sword in his hand while he was resting under a tree during daytime. Hazrat saw him as he was about to lift his hand to attack him, and asked him to go ahead and finish the job. The man was, however, so overcome by Hazrat’s personality that he threw away his sword, fell down on his knees and broke into tears.
iii)           Another similar emissary came one day to Hazrat and offered poisoned food to him. Hazrat did suspect some foul play. He nevertheless took a few morsels in order not to disappoint the man. And also because he firmly believed that death cannot come before the divinely-ordained time, and that the poison would not therefore have any effect if providence willed otherwise. The food did produce some harmful affects but these were not of any serious, mortal nature.
iv)           In another instance, a Hindu Brahmin of Srinagar (Kashmir) was secretly hired to exercise sorcery against Hazrat. It caused Hazrat to become seriously ill for one full month. At the end of that period, Hazrat somehow came to know the real cause of the illness. From then onwards, he started recovering because of sheer faith that the magic of an infidel could not kill him under any circumstances. He was soon fully cured. The Kashmiri Brahmin responsible for the magic spell, on the other hand, died soon thereafter, reportedly because his unsuccessful magic spell recoiled on himself!
v)            Hazrat Pir Fazl Din (R.A), maternal uncle of Hazrat Pir Meher Ali Shah’s father Hazrat Nazr Din Shah (R.A), was the head of the Golra Shrine at the time when Hazrat embarked upon his career of religious and spiritual guidance. Pir Fazl Din, who had not married and did not therefore have any direct issue, had designated Hazrat as his successor since he considered no one except him to deserve that honour. Lest the closer relatives of Pir Fazl Din deemed his designation instead of someone from among their own ranks as unfair, Hazrat was initially reluctant to wear the mantle of succession. Pir Fazl Din was, however, firm in his decision and over-ruled Hazrat in the matter.
Throughout his later life, Hazrat’s treatment of all his relations (close or distant) remained completely equitable. All of them continued to receive financial assistance from the shrine account, and the education of their children was accorded equal attention by the madressah teaching staff. The result was that all members of family acquired Hazrat’s bai’at in course of time, signifying their full loyalty to him as undisputed head of the shrine. In rare instances of overt or learnt tension, the person concerned was treated with even greater consideration than usual.
      vi)         Besides other people, some respectable contemporary personalities in the spiritual field also thought it fit to join the ranks of Hazrat’s detractors. Some of them criticized Hazrat’s participation in scholarly debates as ‘mullaism’ and therefore unbecoming of a Sufi; some others misinterpreted his absorption in the remembrance of Allah as a sign of conceit and in difference. In course of time, however, all these misunderstandings and expressions of rivalry gave way, by the Grace of Allah, to a recognition of Hazrat’s true greatness and sincere devotion to him by his critics.
                  The aforesaid critics of Hazrat included Maulvi Muhammad Zakir Bagavi and Maulvi Abdullah of Garhi Afghanan, both of whom raised objections concerning some of the contents of Hazrat’s book “Shamsul Hidayah” which he had written in refutation of the Qadyani movement. The former accepted the clarifications provided by Hazrat on the points raised by him, and not only withdrew his objections but also joined the group of ulama who accompanied Hazrat to Lahore for his planned (but abortive) debate with Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. The latter, however refused to be convinced by Hazrat’s replies. 

 

The great personality of Hazrat Syedna Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib (R.A)

 
Hazrat’s daily schedule
Details of Hazrat’s schedule, as excerpted from the memoirs of Sheikh-ul-Jamia Maulana Ghulam Muhammad Ghotavi, a sincere devotee of Hazrat (R.A) who used to visit Golra frequently and stay there for long periods at a time, are given below:
“ Hazrat spent almost all his time in prayers, meditation and recitations, and in providing religious and spiritual guidance to people. He offered his Tahajjud prayers and the first part of his early morning prayers (Fajr) in his room and then came to the mosque for saying the second part in congregation. After completion of the prayers, he resumed the recitations and continued them until around 10 A.M., either in the mosque or back in his room. He spoke to no one during this period, nor did anyone venture to come close to him while he was thus engaged, since the nature of such recitations were such that they could have a different impact on un-initiated people. Around 11:00 A.M., Hazrat came out of his room to spend some time in parlour in order to meet visitors, listen to their problems, pray for the resolution of their problems, and otherwise converse with some of them on scholarly topics and questions. Recitations continued during these meetings as well. Sometimes he also gave lessons from the “Mathnavi of Maulana Rumi”; the “Futuhat-e-Makkiyah” and the “Fasus-uk-Hikam” of Shaikh Muhyuddin Ibn-ul-Arabi; the “Sahih-ul-Bukhari”; and the “Sharah-e-Chaghmani”. Around noon, he returned to his room and had his lunch and his mid-day nap for about an hour. Thereafter he returned to the mosque for the Zuhr Prayers (early afternoon) prayers. This was followed by further recitations in his room until the Asr (late afternoon) prayers. During this period anyone wishing to state his problems or ask questions was allowed to do so. Indeed, sometimes a brief sitting of some selected group of persons was held and views exchanged on important religious topics”.
“ After Asr prayers, Hazrat usually left alone on horseback for the village Maira Badiyah, two or three miles away, where he offered his Maghreb (evening) and Isha (late evening) prayers in a mosque before returning to Golra. A daily spell of horse riding had been medically prescribed for him as a fitness device in an otherwise sedentary schedule. 
Once a sincere devotee suggested that Hazrat might take someone along him for security purposes during this ride. Hazrat, however, declined the suggestion, and drew the devotee’s attention to ayah 67 of Surah V of the Holy Quran in which Allah had promised protection of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)  “against mankind”. When the devotee pointed out that such a protection was specifically promised for the Holy Prophet ( P.B.U.H), Hazrat remarked that as a slave of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) he too considered himself to be indirectly covered by this divine promise. The recitations and meditation were resumed after supper and continued fairly late into night before Hazrat retired to bed. The daily time-table was suitably adjusted during the Holy month of Ramadan, in order to provide for Sehr (start of fast in the early morning), iftar (breaking the fast at the sunset), and the taravih prayers as part of Isha, when the entire Holy Quran is recited in twenty or more daily installments over the one-month period by a hafiz (a person who has memorized the full Quran), and which are an important Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)”.
“ To those who took bai’at at his hands to become his formal disciples (or Murid), Hazrat usually adjoined two things: (a) to say all the five daily prayers regularly and (b) to add a couple of short recitations after each prayer. The latter comprised, in most cases, the recitations of Darud Sharif on the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) ten times, the Kalima Sharif ten times, and the Surah Ikhlas of the Quran ten times. 
This signified two things
(i)         Hazrat’s recognition of the key importance of salat in an Islamic system, and its instrumentality in restraining a person from “ wickedness and sin” as stressed in both the Quran and Hadith and Sunnah,     
(ii)         His anxiety not to over burden the common run of his disciples with too exacting a regimen of prayer and recitations, but to stress only those matters which could open the way to piety and virtue in a person’s entire life. The regimen was suitably enhanced for those seeking spiritual advancement or themselves requesting extra recitations.
Hazrat’s conversation was a model of conciseness and precision. Replies to lengthy questions were provided in a few words and in a manner fully conceived by the questioner.”
Character and attributes
Constancy of relationship   
Hazrat’s relation to those known to, or in any way connected with, him was based on complete constancy, solicitude and concern for their problems and troubles. He enquired about their circumstances, consoled them with genuine compassion, and prayed for the resolution of their difficulties. The result was that he was considered by them to be not only the Pir and a guide, but also a source of comfort and solace to them. He often indulged in pleasantries with the poor and lowly, making everyone of his myriad followers feel he was kinder to him than to everyone else.         
Attitude towards ill wishers and detractors
Hazrat took special care to treat his detractors and ill wishers with even greater kindness and grace than those who were loyal and friendly to him. One such person once came to him to obtain a letter of recommendation to a local official in connection with some genuine personal problem. Hazrat not only gave him the needed letter but also refused to accept some amount of money which he wanted to present by way of nazrana (offering).
Even otherwise, Hazrat gave little importance to monetary offerings made by his visitors during his daily sessions. These were collected by a person designated for this purpose, and deposited with the administrator of the langar (free kitchen), without Hazrat caring even to look at them. The same happened to the money offered to Hazrat during his train journeys by devotees who thronged in large numbers to pay their respects to him at different railway stations en route.
Diet
In the glorious tradition of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) of Islam and of all the classical sufi masters, Hazrat’s living was frugal, and his diet sparing and simple. According to Shaikh-ul-Jamia Maulana Ghulam Muhammad Ghotavi, Hazrat used to take only a few morsels of food after the Isha (late evening) prayers and then apparently went to sleep. In fact, however, he used to keep awake, spend the whole night in secret and soundless recitation, and to say his Tahajjud (pre-dawn) prayers with the same wudu (ablutions). According to his own admission made towards the tag end of his life, his total weekly food intake never exceeded a few ounces. Despite this highly austere regimen, Hazrat remained in excellent physical condition throughout the life, presumably because the physical food vacuum was made up by spiritual reinforcement. Only towards the very end did his body strength undergo a marked decline, and his digestive system showed visible signs of impairment due to prolonged voluntary abstention from food.
Complexion and General Appearance
Hazrat had a wheatish complexion, high forehead, awe-inspiring and captivating eyes, a lean and handsome nose, arched and dense eyebrows, lips of medium thickness, shining teeth, a compact beard (not too long nor too short), curly hair extending down to the ear lobes, a broad chest, soft and delicate fingers, and spacious palms. Even though of medium stature, Hazrat rose above everyone else while in company. He walked with a tender step, and his body was as a whole strong and wiry.
The aforesaid features combined to make Hazrat Syedna Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) an embodiment of physical beauty and grace. Added to the spiritual and ideational greatness that he developed overtime, the total emerging picture was one as close to uniqueness as one could wish to be seen in a human being.
Dress
Although Hazrat did not like to be photographed, and strictly forbade anyone to do so, some of his devotees did manage to photograph him without his knowledge or permission. A couple of such photographs are included in this website. Hazrat liked white dress, and wore it immaculately clean and tidy. The dress comprised items confirming to the best traditions of Muslim ulama and divines in this part of the world. He kept the tasbeeh (rosary) constantly in his hands for purposes of silent recitation.
Horse-riding
Hazrat was an expert rider, and was able to control even the most unruly horse without any difficulty. Examples of this were witnessed on several occasions in Golra, Sial Sharif, and Pakpattan Sharif. A number of well bred horses, offered by different devotees for his use, formed part of his stable. For his daily ride outside Golra after the Asr prayers, he used a horse specially selected by him, which came over time to recognize and defer tamely to his riding style. Because of its respectful tameness while Hazrat rode it, the horse came to nicknamed Huzuri (the reverential one).
Voice and gait
Hazrat (R.A) had a sweet and dignified voice. He spoke in measured tones, and in a manner that his words sank indelibly into the listener’s mind.
Hazrat (R.A) walked with a gait full of dignity and poise, which impressed and was admired by all and sundry. Whenever he entered an assemblage, everyone present became a picture of reverence and humility to greet him, and was anxious to shake and kiss his hand, or, if this was not possible, to at least touch his person for blessing. The attendants of the shrine often had to make a circle around Hazrat (R.A) to protect him from being squeezed in by the multitude.  
 

PASSING AWAY OF HAZRAT SYEDNA PIR Mehr Ali Shah

 
Illness and debilitation
As hinted at various places either, Hazrat (R.A) had been used to eating, sleeping and speaking sparingly throughout his life. Constant remembrance of Allah and indulgence in related spiritual exercises had made him indifferent to worldly comforts and luxuries. As once admitted by himself, he used to go without food for several days during his student life without experiencing any hunger. Possibly as a result of this austere regimen, the stomach ceased to function properly in life, and the troublesome ailment of hiccough set in, sometimes to continue for weeks on end.
Sensitivity to the misfortunes and hardships of devotees
Despite the aforesaid austere schedule and other occasional ailments, Hazrat’s general health remained quite good until the age of about 71-72 year. In 1928-29, however, symptoms of debility started steadily increasing. This was due not only to physical illness, but also in appreciable measure to the multiple spiritual pre-occupations and especially to the mental distress caused by tales of woe narrated by the devotees arriving in Golra in large numbers almost daily from different places. In addition, numerous letters were received from devotees with similar tales of sorrow and grief. Due to Hazrat’s practical adherence to the principle of Wahdat-ul-wajood the troubles of others had become his own, and he felt them no less acutely than the persons concerned themselves. In this respect, Hazrat’s sensitivity reflected that of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) himself. According to Syedah Aysha Siddiqah (R.A), his wife of revered memory, the Prophet Muhammad’s  (P.B.U.H) health had been very good in the beginning. Towards the closing years of his life, however, concern for the fate of the Islamic ummah had emotionally affected him so deeply that his health underwent a rapid decline. The result was that he was obliged to say his nawafil, (supererogatory prayers) in a sitting posture. Sometimes he would recite the following Quranic ayah of Surah Al-Ma’ida ayah 118, in his prayers at night and then burst into tears:  
Translation: “If Thou dost punish them, lo! They are Thy slaves: and if Thou dost forgive them, Thou are the Mighty, the Wise”.     (V,118)
Spiritual progress
As Hazrat (R.A) advanced in years, his visionary capacity also steadily increased. Alone or in company, a state of obliviousness to everything around him absorbed him. He spoke less and less even when in company, and remained mostly occupied in silent contemplation. His complexion kept changing hues, reflecting his constant inner spiritual activity. Occasionally, he would raise his hand and heave a sigh of distress. During this period, he often recited the following Urdu verse which provided an indication of his inner state:  
Translation: “In the place where my heart has set up its camp, there is room neither for speech nor quest”.
Clues to Hazrat’s inner state
Around this time, some devotees of Hazrat (R.A), who were deeply concerned about his health, were re-assured through dreams and visions that Hazrat’s condition was not due to anything wrong with his health, but was rooted elsewhere. One such devotee, belonging to Multan, had the privilege of seeing Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam (R.A) in a dream and heard him say that Hazrat was in fact traversing a spiritual stage at that time, which had to be crossed entirely on one’s own since no external spiritual succour could be provided to help one out. Even so, Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam added, one eminent spiritual personality (meaning himself) was providing guidance to Hazrat in successfully passing through this stage.  

Because of the physical weakness, Hazrat (R.A) had by this time been obliged to discontinue his riding schedule. Since, however, the doctors insisted that some way must be found for him to have a little daily exercise, he tried for a few days to take a short stroll after Asr prayers. This, too, could not be kept for long. Hazrat Babuji, therefore, bought a car and arranged for Hazrat (R.A) to take daily rides in it for few miles.

A letter from Allama Muhammad Iqbal
During the early stages of Hazrat’s spiritual absorption, a letter, addressed to him by the late Allama Dr. Muhammad Iqbal, world-famed poet-philosopher of the East, was received in Golra Sharif. In this letter, the Allama had sought clarification by Hazrat (R.A) of the contents of a chapter of Futuhat-e-Makkiyah (The Meccan Revelations), the renowned book by Hazrat Shaikh Muhyuddin Ibn-ul-Arabi on the subject of Wahdat-ul-Wajood (Ultimate Oneness of Being). The letter was read out to Hazrat (R.A) during one of his rare moments of respite from Istighraq (spiritual absorption). Hazrat (R.A) listened carefully to the contents of the letter, and asked to present the letter at some other time when he was in better state of mind. Accordingly, the letter was presented after a few days but due to continued illness and discomfort, however, Hazrat (R.A) asked the devotee, to write back expressing regret that he was unable to respond to the letter due to his illness.
English translation of Allama Iqbal’s letter in question is given below for the benefit of the reader:
Respected Hazrat Qibla,
                                      Assalam-o-Alaikum,
I have wished for long time to have the privilege of meeting you, but have unable to do so. I am now trying to make amends by writing this letter. Even though I am afraid it would not be easy for you to respond (in the present state of your health), I am nevertheless taking the liberty of writing the letter because “there is no other door in India which could be knocked at for the purpose which I have in view.” Relying on your generosity of mind, therefore, I do hope that the letter will be vouchsafed a reply.
Last year, I had given a lecture in England on Mujaddid Alf-e-Sani (Shaikh Ahmad of Sirhind). The lecture had been well received in the fair-minded circles of that country. I am now planning to speak this time on Hazrat Muhyuddin Ibn-ul-Arabi. In this connection, I set out below certain questions which seem to me to need clarification:
(i)  What views had Hazrat Shaikh-e-Akbar (i.e., Muhyuddin Ibn-ul-Arabi) expressed on the subject of Haqiqat-e-Zaman (i.e., reality of time) in his various writings? How do his views differ from those of other leading scholars on this subject?
(ii)  In which books of Shaikh-e-Akbar has his views expressed on this subject been set out, and where on each book? I ask this because I would wish to study the relevant books personally as well.
(iii) Have any other sufi ulama also discussed this subject in any of his writings? If so, these may kindly be identified. The late Maulvi Syed Anwar Shah had once given me an Arabic booklet titled “Dirayatuz-zaman” (analysis of Time) sometime ago, which dealt with this subject, and which you also must have seen. I have found the booklet to be too brief, however, and would wish to have more light shed on the subject.
      Having been told that your good self had discontinued teaching for sometime, I was reluctant to write this letter. Since, however, my sole object is to serve the cause of Islam, I expect you to be kind enough to excuse this intrusion on your time.
                                                                                                     Sincerely,

                                                                                               Muhammad Iqbal.

Passing Away of Hazrat (R.A)
In the early years of his spiritual journey, Hazrat had imposed upon himself an exceptionally exacting regimen of prayers, contemplation, and physical self-denial. This included very sparing intake of food and long spells of fasting, even outside the obligatory fasting enjoined during the Holy month of Ramadan. His stomach therefore gradually became less and less used to food, and its digestive capacity was impaired in consequence. Towards the later years of his life, this gave rise to the onset of the persistent and prolonged spells of hiccoughs, an exceedingly distressing malady. This was followed by an ailment, which defied diagnosis by doctors and physicians. These different afflictions, which continued more or less for a period of about ten years, intensified during the closing 4 or 5 years, when Hazrat was almost constantly bed-ridden.
Despite this most trying situation, Hazrat continued to meet the un- ending stream of visiting devotees regularly, to pray for them, and to answer their various questions. Even though Hazrat Babuji was taking care of large numbers of visitors in order to relieve Hazrat of a part of his burden, Hazrat (R.A) nevertheless continued discharging his responsibilities himself as long as he was able to do so. This indicated the precedence over every thing else even at the cost of his own comfort.
The state of almost total Istighraq lasted for about 2-21/2  years towards the end. During this state, a devotee had to convey the requests of visiting disciples to Hazrat several times in order to attract his attention to elicit his prayers. Once Hazrat recited the following prayer during this period: 
Translation: “O Allah! Make our beginning good, and our end also good and settle all our affairs on a good and blessed note, for the sake of thy Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), the paragon of all good.”    
Occasionally, Hazrat (R.A) would try to make some conversation, but would soon relapse into unconsciousness. Indeed these spells caused even greater strain and distress to him than usual. Although the real reason for this can be understood only by those who actually pass through such experiences it seems probable that the distress resulted from commuting between two totally different worlds, i.e., the physical world and the world of spirit, a move towards spiritual absorption.

On one such occasion Hazrat Babuji had all the doors of Hazrat’s room opened so that those desirous of having a glimpse of him could do so. As far as it can be recalled, Hazrat asked the late Qari Ghulam Muhammad to recite Surah Yusaf (Joseph-XII of the Holy Quran) on this occasion, and was moved to tears at some points while listening to the Surah. At the end of the recitation Hazrat Babuji took the opportunity to request Hazrat to pray for all those present at the time, which he readily did.

 

CONSTRUCTION OF THE MAUSOLEUM

 
Hazrat Babuji (R.A), who occupied the spiritual throne of Golra for 37 years (from 1937 to 1974), made it a point to regard every person who came to him for bai’at (formal pledge of fidelity) as in reality Hazrat himself, and passed him (or her) on to Hazrat’s spiritual care. As for himself, he admitted to being no more than a servant of the Golra shrine, consecrated as it is to the memory of Hazrat Syedna Ghaus-e-Azam (R.A) emanating from it. Even though his own name became, in course of time, as much as of a household word as that of Hazrat Syedna Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) himself, Babuji never elevated himself to a position higher than the latter. In line with this self-image, he devoted his energies through out his lifetime to the improvement and expansion of the facilities at the Shrine, in order to ensure that people visiting here in ever-increasing numbers were duly taken care of. It is principally due to these efforts of Hazrat Babuji (R.A) and after him of Hazrat Ghulam Muinuddin (R.A) and Shah Abdul Haq, (Sajjada Nasheen Dargah-e-Ghausia Mehria, Golra Sharif), that the Golra shrine today ranks as one of the best-managed shrines in the country.
On the advice of some of the devotees present on the occasion, Hazrat’s body had been buried towards the left and close to the mosque at Golra Sharif. This followed the pattern of the tomb of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) at Madina Munawwara which is also situated next to Masjid-e Nabavi on the left. For this purpose, the orchard next to the mosque had been selected, and since the surface of the orchard was substantially lower than that of the mosque. This meant that body of Hazrat was covered by as much as 20 feet of earth work.
Sometime later, in visions to some devotees, Hazrat (R.A) expressed disapproval of this situation, and questioned being pressed by so much of earth work. As a result, expert advice was sought as to how the position could be rectified. The engineer-in-charge of the work of mausoleum construction, Babu Lal-Muhammad Chughtai, who was then Assistant Chief Architect of the Punjab Government and was also a murid of Hazrat (R.A), advised that the surface of the grave itself should be raised to a depth of no more than 6 feet below the ground level. This would of course mean disinterment of the coffin from its existing place advised by the engineer in charge.
Hazrat Babuji (R.A) arranged to have this operation carried out with the utmost caution and discreetness in order to avoid any publicity. The coffin was taken out in the late evening, and was placed behind the closed doors near the tomb of Hazrat’s father, Ajji Sahib (R.A) where it had to be kept for two days and nights while the work of the new grave was completed. Despite the care exercised by Hazrat Babuji (R.A), however, word about the disinterment of the coffin leaked out, and hundreds of devotees rushed to Golra to earn the privilege of seeing the Holy coffin once again.
A strange incident
When the coffin was taken out in the evening, Hazrat Babuji (R.A) happened to see a small slit on one side of it, and could not resist looking through it inside the coffin. As he did so, he saw dazzling light emitting from Hazrat’s (R.A) brow, the like of which could not be compared to any earthly light. This magnificent sight instantly reminded Babuji of the following Persian verse of Khwaja Hafiz of Shiraz: 
Translation: ” I swear by Allah that I feel envious of my two bright eyes (which are looking at the beloved’s face) because normal eyesight is incapable of absorbing the brilliance of such a super-fine and delicate face.”

Construction of the mausoleum

The construction of Hazrat’s mausoleum took nearly twenty years to be fully completed. High quality marble for the mausoleum was requisitioned from the famed “Makrana” mines in Jodhpur princely State in un-divided India. The builders were also invited from Jodhpur. These men stayed on in Golra Sharif until the completion of the work, and have now become Pakistani citizens. The mausoleum is a beautiful structure and presents an eye-cooling view. Its design conforms to the traditional Islamic style of architecture, with an imposing dome in the middle and arched verandahs on all sides.
Just below the ceiling height on all sides both inside and outside the building, carefully-selected verses of the Quran along with excerpts from the Prophet’s  (P.B.U.H) ahadith of similar meaning, both of them with their translations, and equally well-selected Persian verses of eminent Sufi poets such as Maulana Rumi, Khwaja Hafiz of Shiraz, Shaikh Saadi, and others, have been engraved with black stone in exquisite calligraphy.   
“There is no extravagance in good things”   
Hazrat Babuji (R.A) was considerably concerned about the question whether the construction of a mausoleum over Hazrat’s (R.A) grave would be proper from the shariah point of view. Although most of the ulama ruled such construction as permissible in itself under the shariah, one of them, while agreeing with the majority view, opined that such a structure was likely to involve such large expenditure as to fall within the definition of “undue extravagance”, which is looked upon with disfavour by the shariah. Thereupon, Hazrat Babuji (R.A) consulted various scholarly writings on the subject in order to make some definite decision. In this process, he came across a ruling of Hazrat Shaikh Abu Saeed Abul Khair (R.A) in these words: 
Translation: “There is no extravagance in good things”.
 

BOOKS OF HAZRAT SYEDNA Pir Mehr Ali Shah Sahib

 
This first book of Hazrat Tahqiq-ul-Haq Fi Kalima-tul-Haq (The truth about Kalima-tul-Haq) was written in 1897 AD in Persian language. It gained wide approbation in the Islamic world because of its high scholarly and analytical content, and the erudite discussion on important religious and spiritual issues contained in it. In 1962, a second edition of the book, containing Urdu translation along with Persian text, was published. Finally, a third hard-bound edition was published, with further amplifications and printing improvements, in December 1991.
The central themes of this book is Wahdat-ul-wajood (Ultimate Oneness of Being), and the Kalimah-e-Tawhid (Translation: There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His messenger). This book of Hazrat Syedna Pir Meher Ali Shah (R.A) provides a masterly exposition of the concept of “Wahdat-ul-Wajood” and helped clear many of the prevailing misinterpretations of the concept.
Reason for writing the book
The agreed meanings and implications of Wahdat-ul-Wajood and Wahdat-ush-Shahud appear to have been departed from by one Maulana Abdul Rahman of Lucknow, a contemporary of Hazrat, in his booklet titled “Kalimatul Haq” (The Word of Truth). The Maulana was  an eminent religious scholar, well-versed in both Shariah sciences and in Tasawwuf (Sufism) He was a staunch believer in Wahdat-ul-Wajood, in theory as well as practice. It appears, however, that during the course of his spiritual journey, he was so overcome by excessive absorption in the concept of Tawhid-e-wujudi (Unity of Being) as to indulge in a rather distorted interpretation of the concept in his above-mentioned book. In effect, he described idols (false gods) to be “at par with Allah”, through a mis-interpretation of the word “ilah” (god) used in the Kalima-e-Tawhid. Maulana even went a step further and asserted that the entire Muslim Ummah was under an obligation to accept his aforesaid version of Wahdat-ul-wajood, and that ulama (past or present) who rejected this version were, or would be, guilty of misguidance.
Taking serious note of this, some contemporary ulama denounced Maulana Abdul Rahman’s views as amounting to heresy, although very few of them were able to effectively counter the many learned and weighty arguments that the Maulana had advanced in support of his view-point. The result was that the issue threatened to disrupt the unity of the entire Muslim ummah.
It was this point that Hazrat decided to intervene, and wrote his book titled “Tahqiq-ul-Haq Fi Kalimatul Haq”. In this book, he refuted Maulana Abdul Rahman’s stand on the the point at issue with powerful and convincing arguments derived from Quran and the hadith. He conclusively proved that the meaning and interpretation of Kalima-e-Tawhid, which had been unanimously accepted and acted upon by the Islamic ummah ever since the period of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) and with his full approval, but which Maulana Abdul Rahman had differed from in his booklet, were enough to preserve the iman of a Muslim, and to rid him from “kufr” (unbelief) and shirk (association or ascribing “partners” to Allah). At the same time, however, Hazrat desisted from dubbing Maulana as a heretic, as many other ulama had done. Instead he considered the latter’s views to be based, not on any willful or ill-intentioned distortion but on an “overpowering spiritual experience”, and therefore attributable to a state of mind beyond the Maulana’s own control.    
The subject covered in Hazrat’s book was highly delicate and sensitive. Furthermore, the arguments advanced by the Maulana in support of his point of view had been very strong and scholarly, and they could only be refuted by reasoning equally logical and convincing. Because of this, Hazrat’s book was necessarily a highly erudite and scholarly piece of writing, and its contents could be truly understood only by persons well-versed in both the Arabic language in which the book was written, and the intricacies and subtleties of the spirit. 
Indeed the book was hailed by distinguished scholars and sufia as a work of outstanding merit and a masterpiece. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, who occupies a position of eminence among the Sub-continent’s ulama, was reported to have observed, 
“If Hazrat Meher Ali Shah had not produced this book, it would have become exceedingly difficult (if not well-nigh impossible) for the Muslim community to preserve its age-old belief structure in the face of the powerful case made by Maulana Abdul Rahman for his point of view. Thanks to this book, the controversy which threatened to divide the ummah into two bitterly opposed groups was amicably resolved and laid to rest for all time to come”. 
Topics covered in the book
a)   Meaning and explanation of the Kalima’s opening words “ There is no god but Allah”;
b)   A discussion of Tawhid-e-wujudi (Unity of Being), and of the way to understand and experience it as done by the classical and eminent spiritual masters;
c)   Meaning and explanation of the second part of the Kalimah “ (Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is the Messenger of Allah)”; and
d)   Selected ahadith (traditions) of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) on this and related subjects.
2.  Shamsul Hidayah   
 As mentioned earlier, this book was written by Hazrat (R.A) as a part of his fight against Qadianism or Ahmadiya movement. In short, the book Shamsul Hidayah established the case for Jesus Christ’s ascent to Heaven “alive” and “in person” in such forceful and incontrovertible terms as to totally demolish Mirza’s interpretation and claims. The book was, therefore, acclaimed by the Muslim ulama of all schools of thought. This book was written in the year 1899.     
Reason for writing the book – in Hazrat’s (R.A) own words
A summary of reasons given by Hazrat in the beginning of the book for its compilation is reproduced below:
(a) The era of true guidance, firm adherence to the faith, and balanced thinking and action is now long past, with the result that human nature is being increasingly influenced by prejudice and ignorance.
(b)  Due to the general lack of piety, and fear of God, inner light, and scholarly ability, it has become difficult to distinguish between right and wrong and to preserve true belief.
(c)  Simplicity and truth, which are among the basic and important principles of Islam, have given place to greed, mischief and hypocrisy.
(d)  Despite these shortcomings, people now tend to consider themselves to be all-knowing, and to regard the visions of prophets of Allah to be the subject of error and misinterpretation, and the “ijtihadat” (re-interpretations) of early ulama to be ‘obsolete’ while they consider their own meanings and interpretations to be immune from those faults.
(e)  Because of all this, the patently wrong and misleading views set forth in Qadyani writings have started gaining more and more credence, making it imperative that something effective be done to stem this tide.

Hazrat added that the Qadyani views had been brought to his notice earlier, but he had been restraining the ulama from condemning them because he considered this to be against the Islamic principles of tolerance and broadness of outlook. However, a situation had now been reached which could not be tolerated or ignored any longer. He had, therefore, written the book “Shamsul Hidayah” to inform the people about the true meanings of the Quranic ayah and the Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) ahadith on the related points, and thereby ensure that the established and unanimously accepted beliefs of Islam are not discarded merely due to the lack of correct knowledge. In short, the book Shamsul Hidayah established the case for Jesus Christ’s ascent to heaven “alive and in person” in such forceful and incontrovertible terms as to totally demolish Mirza’s interpretation and claims. The book was, therefore, acclaimed by the Muslim ulama of all schools of thought. The adverse and abusive remarks made about it by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and his followers in their various writings and sayings were an indirect proof of their helplessness in providing an effective answer to the arguments and reasoning presented by Hazrat in the book. The book has gone through three editions since it was published, the latest one having been published in 1985.

3. Saif-e-Chishtiyai    
As Hazrat had made out a very strong case in his book “Shamsul Hidayah” to expose the fallacy of the arguments put forward by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad to back up his claim to be the masil of Jesus Christ and later the Promised Messiah in person. Besides negating those arguments, Hazrat had also called upon Mirza to explain the true inner meaning of the Kalima-e-Tayyibah.
About two years of the publication of Shamsul Hidayah, the Qadyani camp published two books by way of rejoinders to Shamsul Hidayah. One of these titled “Ijaz-ul-Masih” (The Miracle of Messiah), was written by Mirza himself. Concerning his own book, Mirza put forward the claim that it was beyond human power to reply to the arguments contained in that book (Ijaz-ul-Masih). 
The second Qadyani book, titled “Shams-e-Bazighah” (The Shining Sun) was written and published by Mirza Sahib’s loyal disciple and old-time associate, Maulvi Ahsan Amrohi. In this book, an effort was made, besides other things, to give a detailed explanation of the Kalimah (There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger), as had been demanded by Hazrat in his book Shamsul Hidayah.
In reply to Mirza’s two aforesaid books, Ijaz-ul-Masih and Shams-e-Bazighah, Hazrat wrote his now-renowned book Saif-e-Chishtiyai (The Chishtia Sword), and had it distributed free of cost to the sub-continent’s ulama and mashaikh as well as among religious schools and other institutions.
Saif-e-Chishtiyai further elaborated the arguments contained in Hazrat’s earlier book Shams-ul-Hidayah. In addition, it made nearly one hundred critical comments on the incorrect meaning and logic, errors of grammar, diction and idiom, plagiarisms and distortions in respect of Surah Al-Fateha (the opening Surah of the Holy Quran) as contained in Mirza’s Ijaz-ul-Masih. Similar criticism were made of the contents of Shams-e-Bazighah, in which an effort had been made by Mirza to spell out the meaning of the Kalimah (There is no god but Allah and Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is Allah’s Messenger) as demanded by Hazrat in Shams-ul-Hidayah and objections had also been raised to the various points made in that book (Ijaz-ul-Masih, written by Mirza Qadyani).
As clarified by Hazrat in his introductory remarks, this book, like Shamsul Hidayah, was also written by Hazrat on the insistence of some ulama and other people rather than on his own initiative, and its real purpose was to explain the correct position of the related issues from the standpoints of the Quran and the Hadith for the information and guidance of people rather than to indulge in polemics with Mirza and his followers.
Saif-e-Chishtiyai elaborated further upon the arguments contained in Hazrat’s earlier book Shamsul Hidayah, and also gave convincing rejoinders to the objections raised by Mirza concerning that book. In addition, it made nearly one hundred critical comments on the incorrect meanings and logic, errors of Arabic grammar, diction and idiom (which are crucially important in relation to the Quran and the Hadith, since even the slightest error can completely distort the meanings of the relevant ayat and ahadith) in respect of Surah Al-Fateha contained in Mirza’s Ijaz-ul-Masih. Similar criticisms were made of the contents of Shams-e-Bazighah. The details of these various comments, which can be properly understood only by those well-versed in Arabic language and in religious issues, may be seen in the book itself.
In Saif-e-Chishtiyai, Hazrat had inter alia predicted that since Mirza was an impostor, he would never have the privilege of visiting Madina Munawwara and paying his respects at the tomb of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), which, according to a hadith was one of the things which Jesus Christ (the real Promised Massiah) was destined to do, along with the performance of Hajj, after his future descent to earth. This prediction was proved correct when Mirza died a few years later neither performing Hajj nor visiting Madina.
Saif-e-Chishtiyai was hailed by contemporary religious scholars as a masterpiece on the subject. It was quoted extensively by writers of Quranic commentaries and other religious authors as a reference to prove their various points. As intended, this book did effectively stem the advancing Qadyani tide, making it almost completely ineffective. It helped thousands of Muslims to rediscover the truth about the issues that Qadianism had raised, besides making many Qadianis themselves repent and rejoin the ranks of orthodox Muslims.
4. I’la Kalimatillah Fi Bayan-e-Wa Ma Uhilla Bihi Legharillah 
(Exalting the Word of Allah through the Quranic ayah: “And that which hath been dedicated to anyone other than Allah- II, 173). First Published in 1322 A.H. (1904-05 A.D.).
Purpose of the book
This book was written by Hazrat (R.A) to present the correct and balanced view, according to the Quran and Sunnah, concerning certain issues of day-to-day significance, which have been a constant source of controversy among ulama of different schools of thought.
These included:
a)   Permissibility of sacrificing animals in the name of Allah by way of thanksgiving to Him, but at the same time as an invocation of blessing for the souls of eminent religious and spiritual personalities;
b)   Legitimacy of making offering at shrines of ‘ulama and Mashaikh (spiritual leaders);
c)   Seeking spiritual help from the souls of eminent deceased Awlia-e-Allah;
d)   True meaning and scope of the Quranic injunctions to the believers to place complete and absolute faith in Allah in all matters;
e)   Intercession by prophets before Allah on the sinners’ behalf on the Day of Judgment; and
f)    Ability of the deceased to hear after death.
The book was meant to rectify the extremist and diametrically divergent views that had come to prevail over time among ulama of different schools on these points. Immediate occasion for writing it was provided by certain questions posted to Hazrat by a group of Pakhtun and Afghan ulama from Indian’s NWFP. For the benefit of these ulama, Hazrat wrote the book in Persian. Later, on Hazrat Babuji’s initiative, the Persian text was republished along with its Urdu translation for the benefit of the general reader.
5. AlFatuhat-us-Samadiyyah (Divine Bounties)  
This book (published in 1325 A.H. – 1907-08 AD) was written in answer to ten questions addressed by a group of non-conformist ulama to Hazrat indirectly through one of his disciples, Qaim Ali Chishti who was in a Madressah Nomaniya.
The questions posed by the non-conformist ulama had been carefully chosen, so as to cover several different branches of Islamic sciences. This was not done presumably in the hope that no single person could be so widely learned as to be able to do justice to all of them. They covered, for example, such subjects as scholastic theology, linguistics, jurisprudence, philosophy, logic, Euclidean Geometry, numbers, and so on, many of which had generated controversies among ‘ulama of the early Islamic period. Thanks, however, to the ‘Ilm-e-laduni (Divinely inspired knowledge) with which he had been blessed by Allah. Hazrat gave detailed replies to each one of the Questions.
To sum up, Hazrat’s book Al Futuhat-us-Samadiyyah covers some of the exceedingly complex and abstruse branches of Islamic sciences, and provides ample proof of the extraordinary vastness and depth of Hazrat’s knowledge and erudition.    
Twelve questions posed by Hazrat to the non-conformist ulama, which were never answered
The twelve questions addressed by Hazrat to non-conformist ulama at the end of the book Futuhat-us-Samadiyyah, which, as stated earlier, never elicited any answers from the latter, are summarized below:
  1. Ilm-ul-Huruf (Science of letters)
Reproducing a saying of Syedna Muhammad bin Ali with respect to the alphabetic system, Hazrat asked the ulama to explain the meaning of that saying, and the reason for their present sequential order.
  1. Ilm-ul-Hai’ah (Science of shapes and forms)
Citing one of the observations of Uwaisa-ibn-ul-Kamal on this subject, Hazrat asked for the reasons behind it.
  1. Ilm-e-Riyadi (Science of Mathematics)
Hazrat sought a solution to one of the conundrum (riddles) attributed to Sahib Abi Madyan, which was more concise than the one that the ulama had asked Hazrat to decipher.
  1. Ilm-e-Fiqh (Science of jurisprudence)
An explanation was sought about the source and the reason of the “exception” contained in the following expression of leading Islamic jurists:
“The maturity of the shadow of everything is similar in size to the thing itself except around noon-time”.
  1. Ilm-ul-kalam (Science of scholastic theology)
Citing some of the observations of leading scholastic theologians like Ashari, Ibn-e-Kalab Hishm-bin Al-Hikam, Ibn Sina and others about the Word of Allah and about letters and sounds, Hazrat asked his opponents to analytically prove the correctness of anyone of those observations. He also inquired whether the latter regarded “sifat” (attributes) of Allah to be identical with zaat (“person”) of Allah Himself or separate from It.
  1. Ilm-ul-Iqlidas (Science of Euclidean geometry)
Which is the geometrical figure that proves tawhid (Unity of Allah)? And which is the figure relied upon by a Trinitarian Christian to justify his creed of Trinity. Also indicate how the latter can be disproved with the help of Euclidean geometry itself?
Make three circles whose radiuses are equal in length to three given lines, of which one touches (the circle) on the inside and the other on the outside. Describe also the nature of relationship between the three radiuses which is conducive to the solution of the problem.
  1. Ilm-e-Falsafah (Science of philosophy)
Quoting the argument of the Ashairah (The Asharits) concerning the “recentness” (as opposed to “ancientness”) of the universe, and describing it as incorrect, Hazrat has called for reasons (if any) in favour of its correctness.
  1. Ilm-ul-Hadith (Science of Prophetic Tradition)
Hazrat’s (R.A) question on this subject is also reproduced in full because of its importance:
“The hadith concerning “Tahawwul-fissuwar” (transformation of figures) included in Sahih-ul-Bukhari – apparently conflicts with the Quranic ayah (There is nothing whatever like unto Him (i.e., Allah) – XLII, 11. Please reconcile the two. How many scholars have objected to this hadith, and why? Give the reasons for this from the hadith and the ayah themselves.
“In the hadith concerning the ‘Miraj’ (Ascension) of the Holy Prophet Moses from among the apostles of Allah for the purpose of intervening in the matter of determining the number of obligatory ritual prayers to be enjoined upon the Holy Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) ummah? And why was this intervention considered necessary at all considering that the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) himself had been blessed by Allah with the knowledge of everything – past, present and future?
“What is the position of each particular apostle with respect to the specific “falak” (heaven) to which he is related?”
  1. Ilm-ul-Kalam (scholastic theology)
Hazrat sought clarification as to why in the following Quranic ayat, which relate excerpts form the conversation between the Prophet Moses and Khizar, the latter used the singular pronoun for himself in the first ayah and the plural one in the second: 
(i)     As for the ship it belonged to poor people working on the river, and I wished to mar it for there was a king behind them who was taking every ship by force (XVIII, 79)
(ii)    And we intended that their (i.e., the parents’) Lord should change him (i.e., the rebellious son) for one better in purity and nearer to mercy. (XVIII, 81)
  1. Ilm-ut-Tafseer (Science of Quranic commentary)
In relation to the ayah – “And all things We have kept in a clear register (XXXVI, 12).
Hazrat called for an explanation for the commentary on it by Shaikh Muhyuddin Ibn-ul-Arabi (R.A), and on the points arising out of that commentary.
  1. Ilm-ul-Aflak (The science of astronomy / astrology)
Hazrat sought an explanation of some of the Quranic verses containing reference to celestial bodies (sun, moon, stars etc). In particular, he enquired about the reason for the phases of the moon having been specified as twenty-eight (28).
  1. Ilm-e-Riyazi (mathematics)
The opposing ulama were asked to reconcile some of the conflicting observations concerning astronomy/astrology and mathematics.
To sum up, Hazrat’s book Al Futuhat-us-Samadiyyah, covers some of the exceedingly complex and abstruse branches of Islamic branches and provides ample proof of the extraordinary vastness and depth of Hazrat’s knowledge and erudition.
Moreover, these questions still remain unanswered.
6.  Tasfiah Mabain Sunni Wa Shi’ah  
This book, the last of Hazrat’s writings in prose, represents an effort by him to amicably resolve the age-old schism between the Sunni and Shi’ah sects of Islam. The major cause of discord between the two sects has been the divergence of views between them about the manner in which the question of succession to the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) was settled after his passing away, and especially about the order in which the four Pious Caliphs (Abubakar, Umar, Usman and Ali) were installed in the office. The Prophet (P.B.U.H) himself had not nominated a successor, and had left the question to be decided on the basis of democratic consensus in accordance with the true principles of Islam. Although the matter was resolved with unison and amity at the time, issues seeking to sow the seeds of dissension were raised concerning it, long after the event, by forces which could only be regarded as ill wishers of the Muslim Ummah that had attained dizzy heights of glory in a short period of time.
Because of the ruinous effects of this schism on the unity and integrity of the Muslim Ummah, moderation-living ulama have endeavored from the beginning to bridge it through their writings and pronouncements. Unfortunately, the schism has continued to persist, largely because the voice of moderation and restraint has often been stifled amidst the tumult of extremism, and also because the ill wishers of the Islamic Ummah have, through their machinations and conspiracies, not allowed the controversy to be resolved once and for all. Realizing the grave and fundamental significance of this matter, therefore, Hazrat decided to write on the issue in what was meant to be yet another effort to effect a lasting reconciliation between the two sects. In this book, he quoted extensively from Quran and Hadith to establish the legitimacy of the decision taken consensually on the question of Khilafat (succession) to the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), and to present the correct and balanced view about the respective eminence of members of the Prophet’s household (Ahle-baet) and his distinguished Companions (As’haab) which had also developed overtime into a major point of conflict. The balanced but scholarly and convincing tone in which the book has been written cannot but elicit the admiration of all fair-minded readers. At the end the august author appealed to both the sects to follow the path of moderation which is hallmark of Islam, and to view the issue involved objectively and in correct perspective.
Hazrat dictated the manuscript of this book to Khan Bahadur Maulvi Sher Muhammad, custodian of his respondence, for some time before it was interrupted, first by Hazrat’s illness and then by the onset of spiritual state which developed gradually into Istighraq (total spiritual absorption). During his illness, Hazrat’s permission was sought for the printing and publication of the manuscript but he desired the matter to be deferred for the time being. Unfortunately Hazrat passed away before the final completion and publication of the book. After a careful review of the 142-page manuscript, the book was published in 1979 with suitable explanatory notes.
Hazrat’s foreword indicating reasons for writing the book
“The friction between the Sunni and Shi’ah is not something new, that it should call for an appeal by seekers of truth to present-day ‘ulama for its resolution. Indeed, our venerable ancestors have been giving expression to their views on the subject on the one hand and love for the Ahle-baet (Members of the Prophet’s household) on the other with due moderation and decorum over the past few centuries. Unfortunately, however, a new element seems to have entered the scene in the recent times. This is the belief that it is essential for a true sunni to be antagonistic to the Ahle-baet and friendly towards the Umayyids, i.e., the two groups that were pitted against each other in the battle of Karbala. The fact, however, is that the sunnis have never been guilty of this attitude; indeed love and respect for Ahle-baet has always been regarded by the sunni sect as a corner of their belief structure.
“The reason for this new trend seems to be that sunni ulama have, in their speeches and teachings, tended largely to focus on rebutting the shi’ah practice of hurling abuse on the Umayyad and their sympathizers, and have given much less attention to highlight the virtues and excellent qualities of the Ahle-baet.
“In view of this situation, some well-meaning sunni ‘ulama have lately been emphasizing the need for effective stemming of the aforesaid unhealthy trend. In compliance with their wishes, and despite my lack of ability, competence and time for this deterring task, I have therefore decided to write a few pages on the subject. These pages bring together some of the views contained in earlier writings and my own considered ideas on the subject. They are meant for the information of persons interested in this vital issue, with the prayer that the readers should pray for my salvation in recompense for a humble service to Islam. May Allah, Who bestowed on the world and its denizens His boundless Mercy in the august person of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) of Islam (termed Rahmat-ul-lil Alamin – Mercy for all the words) by Allah Himself in Quran, condone the sins of the Muslim ‘Ummah and forgive us all.”
Topics covered in the book        
  1. Corroboration of legitimacy of the Righteous Caliphate (Khilafat-e-Rashida) with evidence from the Quran especially ayah 55 of Surah XXIV of the Holy Book, which runs as follows:
“Allah hath promised such of you as believe (O mankind !) and do good works that He will surely  make them to succeed (the present rulers) in the earth even as He caused those who     went before them their religion which He hath approved for them, and will give them in  exchange safety  after their fear. They serve Me; (and) they ascribe nothing as partner unto Me.  Those who disbelieve henceforth, they are the miscreants.”       (XXIV, 55)
  1. The issue of Qirtas (piece of paper);
  1. The Hadith pertaining to Khum-e-ghadir (a place containing a water pond)
  1. The matter of Bagh-e-Fidak (the Garden of Fidak)
  1. The Ayah of Mubahilah  (invocation of curse upon liars)  (III, 59-61)
  1. The Ayah of Tathir (purification)    (XXXIII, 33)
  1. The Ayah of Mavvadat (loving kindness among kinsfolk)   (XLII, 23)
  1. The Hadith concerning Madinatul’ilm (City of Knowledge)
  1. The Hadith of Thaqalain (The Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) hadith concerning his heritage of “two weighty things” viz., the Holy Quran and the Prophet’s off-spring (Ahle-Baet) which, if their teachings were faithfully and steadfastly followed by the Ummah, would help it avoid falling a prey to misguide.)
  1. Hadith-e-Madinatul ‘Ilm (The Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) hadith declaring that he was the “City of Knowledge” and Syedna Ali (R.A) was its gate)
7. Fatawa-e-Mehria
The writing of fatawa, or rulings on religious-cum-juridical issues based on the Quran and Sunnah, is an important branch of Islamic learning. Its importance stems from the fact that the Islamic Shariah comprehends every sphere of a Muslim’s life, be it religious, spiritual, secular or any other. Fatawa are meant to provide correct guidance on matters of day-to-day concern to persons who are not themselves versed in the religious knowledge, but who are nevertheless anxious to observe the Shariah in all matters as meticulously as possible. Because of its nature and importance, the writing of Fatawa calls not only for a thorough knowledge of every aspect of Shariah, but also an ability to interrupt that knowledge accurately in relation to the issues under reference, and also to couch the Fatawa in compilations of such eminent leaders of sunni “Fiqh” as Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Malik, Imam Shafi, and Imam Ahmad Bin Humble, and of Imam Jaffer Sadiq (R.A) whose fiqh compilations are drawn upon by the Shi’ah ulama, are the prime sources for the derivation of fatawa.
The book Fatawa-e-Mehria (Rulings of Hazrat Meher Ali Shah) brings together the Fatawa of Hazrat’s own writing. They were first published in book form in 1960. They have been further reviewed twice and their latest (third) revised edition was published in 1988.
 

SAYINGS OF HAZRAT SYEDNA Pir Mehr Ali Shah

 
 
The whole life of Hazrat-e-Ala Pir Meher Ali Shah Sahib (R.A) was a model for the whole Ummah. All his life, he cleansed the hearts of the people who were in search of the righteous path of Allah, purifying them from all the worldly things and enlightened their hearts with the love of Allah and the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H). One can find the code of life and its pattern in Hazrat’s sayings. Following are some of the sayings which are mostly extracted from the “Malfuzaat-e-Mehria” (sayings of Hazrat), Maktubat (letters) of Hazrat Meher Ali Shah Sahib (R.A). 
  •       Every breath of life is a priceless treasure; it should be devoted to the remembrance of the Lord (Allah Almighty), and to the seeking of His pleasure.
  •       True faith can be sustained through the love of Allah.
  •       The true Abd, (i.e., slave) of Allah derives infinitely more happiness and satisfaction from spreading his hands before Him in prayer than from achieving his own worldly objectives.
  •       The love of Allah and His Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) is infinitely superior to the love of mortal human beings and of other worldly things.
  •       Observance of the Holy Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) Shariah and of his personal example (Sunnah) has precedence over everything else.
  •       There is no conflict whatsoever between the “Shariah” and the “Tariqah”. While the formal constitutes the injunctions of Allah and His Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), the latter consists in acting meticulously upon those injunctions.
  •       Spiritual elevation does not give any one a license to ignore the shariah. Indeed, the higher a person goes on the spiritual scale, the greater should be his observance of the Prophet’s shariah (P.B.U.H).
  •       One should carry on one’s legitimate business in life, and should at the same time consider Allah to be Omnipresent and All-Seeing.
  •       The (true) dervish considers every one else better than him self; he tries to rectify his own faults instead of finding faults with others.
  •       A dervish is one who opposes whatever his baser self (Nafs-e-Ammara) impels him to do.
  •       Being a dervish is a state of mind, and does not necessarily depend on the type of dress that one wears, or the food that one eats, so long as these are acquired through lawful means. Ideally, of course, it is preferable to follow the example of the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) who prided in simplicity and frugality.
  •       One should answer humility with humility, but need not be humble before the proud and the conceited.
  •       Seeking the favour or pleasure of persons in high office may be alright for the common man; it is undesirable for those who aspire to be dervish or Sufi.
  •        A Salik (traverser of the path) should have nothing to do with the good or the bad of the world; he should devote his entire attention to his Lord at all times.
  •       The life and the death of Awlia-Allah (friend of Allah) are devoted solely to seeing the Lord’s pleasure, and must not be compared to or equated with the life and death of the common people.
  •       Prayers and recitations should be performed primarily with the object of earning Lord’s pleasure, this can lead, as a by-product, to worldly gain also which lies in the hands of the Lord. It is inconceivable that man should devote himself wholly to the remembrance of his Creator and that the latter should not fulfill his ambition and needs.
  •       One should endeavour to do good deeds; Allah’s forgiveness, however, depends on His Mercy and Grace and not necessarily in one’s good deeds.
  •       Man’s greatness and nobility lie in his character, and especially in practicing humility and self-effacement, and not merely his lineage.
  •       Pride and conceit destroys all good deeds.
  •       Mutual love and sincerity are among the finest quality of the Islamic Ummah. In fact it was Islam which first stressed these qualities for observance by its followers. Unfortunately, however, these are largely missing from today’s Muslim world due to its indifference to Islamic teachings and values.
  •       Allah likes moderation and temperance in everything, and this constitutes the Straight Path that He has ordered us to follow. Exaggerations and misdirected excess, even in religious matters, lead to error and are liable to incur the wrath of Allah.
  •       Avoid extremes in religious as well as worldly matters, for peace and salvation lie only in following the middle path.
  •       As far as possible, one should endure the unkindness of others with patience, and leave revenge and retribution to Allah.
  •       Faith in God’s Mercy, benevolence and omnipotence in the fulfillment of human objectives must be backed up by the utmost human endeavors.
  •       Trust in God does not consist in discarding human endeavour altogether. The best course is to put in one’s best effort and leave the results to God.
  •       As indicated in the Quran (XCIV, 5-6), “hardship goes side by side with ease” (in this worldly life). One should, therefore, not lose heart in time of adversity, but should instead have full faith in the Mercy of Allah and be thankful to Him in all circumstances.
  •       Ibadat (or devotion) consists of submission without argument, acceptance without dissent, patience without complaint, faith without uncertainty, perception without concealment, and attention without diversion.
  •       All Sufi schools have the same ultimate objective, namely the attainment of spiritual elevation and union with Allah; no school should, therefore claim superiority over the others.
  •       Denunciation of Muslims as “kafir” (infidel) on petty sectarian grounds or on the basis of doubt or supposition only, is highly loathsome, and must be avoided at all costs. This alone can ensure the unity of the Ummah and thereby help it regain its lost glory.
  •       “Wahdat-ul-Shahud” is the beginning of the “Suluk” (i.e., spiritual journey) and “Wahdat-ul-Wajood” its ultimate and perfected state.           
  •       While reason and intellect do facilitate the formal study of religious and spiritual sciences, access to the deeper meanings of these sciences is possible only through the Grace of Allah with the help of an accomplished guide and teacher (a Pir).
  •       Power and authority are sure touchstones to a person’s real character and nature. The mean person in power indulges in cruelty, oppression and injustice, while the noble one in a similar position exercises kindness, generosity and justice.
  •       Sama is not an end in itself for men of God. At the same time, its importance should not be denied, since many eminent religious and spiritual personalities are known to have listened to sama as a spiritual vehicle.
  •       The Murid should obey the commands of his Shaikh (spiritual guide) in every thing and particularly in the regular performance of religious rituals and the wazaifs (recitations) enjoined by the Shaikh, in order to derive maximum spiritual benefit, those who are not content with the guidance provided by their own Shaikh-e-Kamil and keep seeking it from others, ultimately waste their efforts (just as a rolling stone gathers no moss).

 

Murshid-e-Kamil

URS MUBARIK complete List