Another element of the reverence and esteem for Beloved Prophet Muhammad Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him is found in all things and places connected to him in Makkah al-Mukarrama, Madinah al-Munawwarah and elsewhere.
Hadrat Saffiyah bint Najda Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anha tells us that Abu Madhura Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anho had a long lock of hair on his forehead that touched the ground when he sat down. When he was asked why he did not cut it he replied,
لم أكن بالذي أحلفها ، و قد مسها رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بيده
"I will not cut off something that the hand of the Messenger of Allah Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him touched." [Ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, Page 62]
The Sword of Islam, Hadrat Sayyiduna Khalid Ibn Waleed Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anho had some strands of the Prophet's of hair that he placed inside his cap. During one of the battles the cap fell off whereupon he fought zealously to retrieve it. He told his companions that,
لم أفعلها بسبب القلنسوة ، بل لما تضمنه من شعره صلى الله عليه و سلم لئلا أسلب بركتها و تقع في أيدي المشركين
I didn't fight for the sake of the cap, rather I fought to retrieve the strands of the Prophet's hair that were tucked within it so that I would not be deprived of their blessing, and also to avoid them falling into the hands of the unbelievers. [Majma' az-Zawaid, Vol. 9, Page 349 – Mustadrik, Vol. 3, Page 239]
Ibn al-Sakan narrated through Safwan ibn Hubayra from the latter's father: Thabit al-Bunani said: Anas ibn Malik said to me (on his death-bed):
هذه شعرة من شعر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فضعها تحت لساني فوضعتها تحت لسانه فدفن وهي تحت لسانه
"This is one of the hairs of Allah's Messenger, Allah's blessings and peace upon him. I want you to place it under my tongue." Thabit continued: I placed it under his tongue, and he was buried with it under his tongue." [al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-Sahaba (Calcutta - 1853), Vol. 1, Page 72]
Imam al-Bayhaqi records in his Dalail al-Nabuwwah and Imam Qadi Iyad al-Maliki states in his Ash-Shifa:
رئي ابن عمر واضعاً يده على مقعد النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من المنبر ، ثم وضعها على وجهه
Hadrat Sayyiduna Ibn Umar Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anho was seen placing his hand on the seat of the Beloved Prophet's pulpit and then wipe it over his face. [Dalail an-Nabuwwah lil Bayhaqi, Vol. 6, Page 249]
Abu Abd ar-RaHman Salma Alaihir raHma narrated from Ahmad Ibn Fadlwiya Zahid Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anho that he was a famous archer in Battles. He says:
ما مسست القوس بيدي إلا على طهارة منذ بلغني أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أخذ القوس بيده
I never touched my bow without Ablution from the time Beloved Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him) took it in his Blessed Hands. [Ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, Page 63]
It was on account of the esteem Imam Malik Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anho had for the Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him that we would not ride a mount in Madinah al-Munawwarah. He would say,
أستحي من الله أن أطأ تربة فيها رسول الله بحافر دابة
"I am too shy before Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta'ala to trample with the hoof of an animal upon the earth in which the Messenger of Allah Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him is buried." [Ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, Page 63]
Someone in Madinah al-Munawwarah said, "The soil of Madinah al-Munawwarah is bad." (May Allah Forbid) This outrageous statement caused Imam Malik to pronounce the judgement against him that he should be beaten and jailed. The man had connections to the hierarchy of Madinah al-Munawwarah but Imam Malik did not retract his judgement and said,
تربة دفن فيها النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يزعم أنها غير طيبة
"He claims the soil in which the Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him is buried is not good!" [Ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, Page 63]
Of Madinah al-Munawwarah, the Beloved Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him said,
من أحدث فيها حدثاً أو آوى محدثاً فعليه لعنة الله و الملائكة و الناس أجمعين ، لا يقبل الله منه صرفاً و لا عدلاً
"The curse of Allah, the angels and all mankind falls upon whosoever innovates something (against the spirit of Islam) in it or shelters an innovator (of something against the spirit of Islam) therein." [Ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, Page 63]
Imam Qadi Iyad al-Maliki Alaihir raHmah records in Ash-Shifa bi Ta'rifi Huqooqil Mustafa:
أن جهجاها الغفاري أخذ قضيب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من يد عثمان رضي الله عنه ، و تناول ليكسره على ركبته ، فصاح به الناس ، فأخذته الأكله في ركبته فقطعها ، و مات قبل الحول
Jihjah al-Ghifari snatched hold of the Beloved Prophet's staff from Sayyiduna Uthman's hand and proceeded to try and break it across his knee. Upon seeing this, the people shouted at him. Thereafter he was stricken by an itching disease in his knee and despite its amputation he died within the year. [Ash-Shifa, Vol. 2, Page 63]
The Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him said,
من حلف على منبري كاذباً فليتبوأ مقعده من النار
"Whosoever swears to a lie on my pulpit will have a seat in the Fire." [Ash-Shifa, Vol 2, Page 63]
Abu Fadl al-Jowhari Alaihir raHma was blessed to visit the City of Madinah al-Munawwarah and as he approached he recited:
رفع الحجاب لنا فلاح لناظر ـــ قمر تقطع دونه الأوهام
و إذا المطي بنا بلغن محمداً ـــ فظهورهن على الرجال حرام
قربننا من يخر من وطيء الثرى ـــ و لها علينا حرمة و ذمام
"The veil has been lifted from us and a moon shines; out to those who look on, banishing all illusions.
As our mounts reach Muhammad; it is forbidden for us to be found in our saddles.
We are drawing near to the best man to have ever walked upon the earth; so it is with respect and honor that we hold this ground." [Ash-Shifa, Vol 2, Page 64]
When a pious Shaykh went on pilgrimage, he went on foot. When asked why he had done so, he replied,
العبد الآبق لا يأتي إلى بيت مولاه راكباً ! لو قدرت أن أمشي على رأسي ما مشيت على قدمي
"What, an offending worshiper going to the home of his master riding! Had I been able to walk upon my head, I would not have walked upon my feet!" [Ash-Shifa, Vol 2, Page 64]
Reverence and respect for the places in which the Revelation were received and which the angels Jibra'il and Mika'il visited, as well as places where the angels descended, also places that heard the sounds of worship and exaltation, and the blessed soil that surrounds the body of the Master of all mankind Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him and places from which the religion of Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta'ala and the prophetic quotations of the Messenger of Allah Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him were spread are necessities.
One must also revere and respect the places where verses of the Holy Qur'an were studied, the mosques in which the prayer was offered, places where virtues and good deeds were witnessed, places that saw proofs and miracles, places associated with the rites of the religion and the stations of the pilgrimage and the way marks of the Master of all the messengers of Allah, praise and peace be upon them. The places where the Seal of the Prophets Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him lived and from which the prophecy gushed and where its waves overflowed. The places that witnessed the message, and the first earth that the skin of the Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him touched after his death – its fragrance should be inhaled, its residence and walls kissed.
يا دار خير المرسلين و من به ـــ هدي الأنام و خص بالآيات
عندي لأجلك لوعة و صبابة ـــ و تشوق متوقد الجمرات
و علي عهد إن ملأت محاجري ـــ من تكلم الجدران و العرصات
لاعفرن مصون شيبي بينها ـــ من كثرة التقبيل و الرشفات
لولا العوادي ، و الأعادي زرتها ـــ أبدا و لو سحباً على الوزجنات
لكن سأهدي من حفيل تحيتي ـــ لقطين تلك الدار و الحجرات
أزكى من المسك المفتق نفحةً ـــ تغشاه بالآصال و البكرات
و تخصه بزواكي الصلوات ـــ و نوامي التلسيم و البركات
"O abode of the best of all Messengers; the one by whom people are guided
and he who was chosen to receive the verses. For you I have intense, passionate love,
and a yearning which kindles the embers of my heart. I have a vow – if I fill my eyes with those walls
and the places where you walked, then my turbaned Gray head will be covered with dust from so much kissing.
Had it not been for obstacles and enemies, I would always visit them, even if I were to be dragged upon my feet.
But I will be guided in my eagerness to greet the inhabitants of those houses and rooms.
By a scent purer than the most splendid musk which covers him each morning and evening.
Pure and ever increasing blessings are bestowed upon him through the prayers for Peace and Blessings upon Him."
The rights of the Beloved Prophet Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon Him and the devotion, respect, esteem and honor that are owed to him are made clear in the Holy Book and the Sunnah and the consensus of the community. In His Book, Allah has made it haram to harm him. The community agrees that anyone among the Muslims who disparages him or curses him is to be killed!!
Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta'ala says,
إن الذين يؤذون الله ورسوله لعنهم الله في الدنيا والآخرة وأعد لهم عذابا مهينا
"Indeed those who trouble Allah and His Noble Messenger – upon them is Allah’s curse in the world and in the Hereafter, and Allah has kept prepared a disgraceful punishment for them." [Surah al-Ahzab, Verse 57]
والذين يؤذون رسول الله لهم عذاب أليم
"and for those who trouble the Noble Messenger of Allah, is a painful punishment." [Surah al-Tawbah, Verse 61]
وما كان لكم أن تؤذوا رسول الله ولا أن تنكحوا أزواجه من بعده أبدا إن ذلكم كان عند الله عظيما
"and you have no right to trouble the Noble Messenger of Allah, nor ever marry any of his wives after him; indeed that is a very severe matter in the sight of Allah." [Surah al-Ahzab, Verse 53]
Know that all who curse Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, or blame him or attribute imperfection to him in his person, his lineage, his deen or any of his qualities, or alludes to that or it’s like by any means whatsoever, whether in the form of a curse or contempt or belittling him or detracting from him or finding fault with him or maligning him, the judgment regarding such a person is the same as the judgment against anyone who curses him. He is killed as we shall make clear. This judgment extends to anything which amounts to a curse or disparagement. We have no hesitation concerning this matter, be it a clear statement or allusion.
The same applies to anyone who curses him, invokes against him, desires to harm him, ascribes to him what does not befit his position or jokes about his mighty affair with foolish talk, satire, disliked words or lies, or reviles him because of any affliction or trial which happened to him or disparages him, because of any of the permissible and well-known human events which happened to him. All of this is the consensus of the 'Ulama' and the Imams of fatwa from the time of the Companions until today.
1. Abu Bakr ibn al-Mundhir said that
أجمع عوام أهل العلم على أن من سب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم يقتل ، و ممن قال ذلك مالك بن أنس ، و الليث ، و أحمد ، و إسحاق ، و هو مذهب الشافعي
The bulk of the people of knowledge agree that whoever curses the Prophet is killed. These include Malik ibn Anas, al-Layth, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Ishaq ibn Rahawayh, and it is the position of the Shafi'i school.
2. Qadi Abu'l-Fadl said that
و هو مقتضى قول أبي بكر الصديق رضي الله عنه ، و لا تقبل توبته عند هؤلاء المذكورين و بمثله قال أبو حنيفة ، و أصحابه ، و الثوري و أهل الكوفة ، و الأوزاعي في المسلم ، لكنهم قالوا : هي ردة
It is based on the statement of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. His repentance is not accepted. Something similar was stated by Abu Hanifa and his people, ath-Thawri and the people of Kufa and al-Awza'i about the Muslims. However, they said that it constitutes apostasy.
At-Tabari related something similar from Abu Hanifa and his companions about anyone who disparages the Prophet, proclaims himself quit of him or calls him a liar.
3. Sahnun said about those who curse the Prophet (SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam),
ذلك ردة كالزندقة
"This is apostasy in exactly the same way as heresy (zandaqa) is."
4. Muhammad ibn Sahnun said that
أجمع العلماء أن شاتم النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم المتقص له كافر . و الوعيد جار عليه بعذاب الله ، و حكمه عند الأمة القتل ، و من شك في كفره و عذابه كفر
The 'ulama' agree that anyone who reviles the Prophet and disparages him is an unbeliever and the threat of Allah's punishment is on him. The community's judgment on him is that he be killed. Anyone who has any doubts about such a person's disbelief and punishment is also an unbeliever.
For a proof of this, Ibrahim ibn Husayn ibn Khalid, the faqih, uses the instance of Khalid ibn al-Walid killing Malik ibn Nuwayra for referring to the Prophet as "your companion."
5. Abu Sulayman al-Khattabi said,
لا أعلم أحداً من المسلمين اختلف في وجوب قتله إذا كان مسلماً
"I do not know of any Muslim who disagrees about the necessity of killing such a person if he is a Muslim."
6. Ibn al-Qasim reports from Malik in the book of Ibn Sahnun, the Mabsut, and the 'Utibiyya and Ibn Mutarrif relate the same from Malik in the book of Ibn Habib,
من سب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من المسلمين قتل ، و لم يستتب
"Any Muslim who curses the Prophet is killed without being asked to repent."
7. Ibn al-Qasim said in the 'Utibiyya,
من سبه أو شتمه أو عابه أو تنقصه فإنه يقتل ، و حكمه عند الأمة القتل كالزنديق
"Anyone who curses him, reviles him, finds fault with him or disparages him is killed. The community says that he should be killed just like the dualist. Allah made it obligatory to respect the Prophet and be dutiful to him."
8. In the Mabsut from 'Uthman ibn Kinana we find,
من شتم النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من المسلمين قتل أو صلب حياً و لم يستتب و الإمام مخير في صلبه حياً أو قتله
"Any Muslim who reviles the Prophet is killed or crucified without being asked to repent. The Imam can choose between crucifying him and killing him."
9. In the variant of Abu'l-Mus'ab and Ibn Abi Uways, they heard Malik say,
من سب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ، أو شتمه ، أو عابة ، أو تنقصه ـ قتل مسلماً كان أو كافراً ، و لا يستتاب
"Anyone who curses the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, reviles him, finds fault with him or disparages him is killed, be he Muslim or unbeliever, without being asked to repent."
10. Asbagh Alaihir raHma said,
>يقتل على كل حال أسر ذلك أو ظهره ، و لا يستتاب ، لأن توبته لا تعرف
"He is killed in every case, whether he conceals it or makes it public, without being asked to repent because his repentance is not recognized."
11. Malik Ibn Wahb related that Malik said,
ن رداء النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم ـ و يروى زر النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم ـ وسخ ، أراد عيبه ـ قتل
"Anyone who says that the Prophet's cloak (or button) was dirty, thereby intending to find fault with him, should be killed."
12. Imam Qadi Iyad al-Maliki said,
قال بعض علمائنا : أجمع العلماء على أن من دعا على نبي من الأنبياء بالويل ، أو بشيء من المكروه ـ أنه يقتل بلا استتابة
Few of our 'ulama says that people agree that anyone who curses any of the Prophets using the expression "Woe to him" or anything disliked is to be killed without being asked to repent.
13. Abu'l-Hasan al-Qabisi gave a fatwa that
فيمن قال في النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم : الحمال يتيم أبي طالب ـ بالقتل
a man who called the Prophet "the porter, the orphan of Abu Talib" should be killed.
14. Abu Muhammad ibn Abi Zayd gave a fatwa to kill a man who was listening to some people discussing what the Prophet looked like. When a man with an ugly face and beard walked by, he said to them, "You want to know what he looked like? He looked like this passer-by in physique and beard." Abu Muhammad said,
<و لا تقبل توبته و قد كذب ـ لعنه الله ، و ليس يخرج من قلب سليم الإيمان
"His repentance is not accepted. He lied, may Allah curse him. That could not come out of a heart with sound belief."
15. Ahmad ibn Abi Sulayman, the companion of Sahnun, said,
إن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم كان أسود يقتل
"Anyone who says that the Prophet was black should be killed."
16. He was told about a man to whom someone said, "No, by the right of the Messenger of Allah," and he replied, "Allah did such a thing to the Messenger of Allah," mentioning some ugly words. People said to him, "What are you saying, enemy of Allah?" Then he said some even harsher things and added, "I wish for a scorpion for the Messenger of Allah." When someone asked him for fatwa about this man, lbn Abi Sulayman said,
شهد عليه و أنا شريكك
"Testify against him and I will be your partner,"
i.e. in killing him and getting the reward. Habib ibn ar-Rabi' said that is because trying to explain away the literal expression is not accepted because it is clear contempt and lack of respect for the Messenger of Allah. His blood is permitted.
17. The fuqaha' of Andalusia gave a fatwa that Ibn Hatim, the scholar of Toledo, be killed and crucified because there was testimony that he made light of what is due to the Prophet. In the course of a debate, he called him "the orphan" and the in-law of the lion (i.e. Mawla 'Ali)," and claimed that his doing-without (zuhd) las not intentional. He alleged that if he had been able to have good things, he would have eaten them. He said other similar things.
18. The fuqaha' of the Qayrawan and the companions of Sahnun gave a fatwa for the killing of Ibrahim al-Ghazari, a poet and master of many sciences. He was one of those who attended the assembly of Qadi Abu'l-'Abbas ibn Talib for debate. He was accused of objectionable things like mocking Allah, His Prophets and our Prophet. Qadi Yahya ibn 'Umar and other fuqaha' summoned him and commanded that he be killed and crucified. He was stabbed and crucified upside down. Then he was brought down and burned. One of the historians related that when the post to which he was tied was lifted up, the body turned around away from qibla. It was a sign to all and the people said, "Allah is greater!" Then a dog came and licked his blood. Yahya ibn 'Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, spoke the truth," and he mentioned a hadith in which the Prophet said, "A dog will not lick a Muslim's blood."
19. Qadi Abu 'Abdullah ibn al-Murabit said,
من قال : إن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم هزم يستتاب ، فإن تاب و إلا قتل ، لأنه تنقص ، إذ لا يجوز ذلك عليه في خاصته ، إذ هو على بصيرة من أمره ، ويقين من عصمته
"Whoever says that the Prophet was defeated is asked to repent. If he repents, it is all right. If not, he is killed because it detracts from the Prophet. Such a disparaging remark could not be said about the Prophet by anyone with understanding of his affair and certainty about his inviolability."
20. Habib ibn Rabi' al-Qarawi said that
مذهب مالك و أصحابه أن من قال فيه صلى الله عليه و سلم : ما فيه نقص ـ قتل دون استتابة
The school of Malik and his companions is that anyone who says anything disparaging about the Prophet is killed without being asked to repent.
21. Ibn 'Attab said that
و كذلك أقول حكم من غمصه أو عيره برعاية الغنم أو السهو أو النسيان أو السحر ، أو ما أصابه من جرح أو هزيمة لبعض جيوشه ، أو أذى من عدوه ، أو شدة من زمنه ، أو بالميل إلى نسائه ، فحكم هذا كله لمن قصد به نقصه القتل
"This is also my position regarding the judgment of anyone who belittles him or insults him about having been a shepherd, oversight, forgetfulness, sorcery, any wound he received, the defeat of one of his armies, injury by an enemy, the intensity of his illness or his being attracted to his wives. The judgment of all this is that the one who intends to disparage him by it is killed."