الصلوۃ والسلام علیک یارسول اللہ
صَلَّی اللہُ عَلٰی حَبِیْبِہٖ سَیِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدِ وَّاٰلِہٖ وَاَصْحَابِہٖ وَبَارَکَ وَسَلَّمْ
وہ جہنم میں گیا جو ان سے مستغنی ہوا
ہے خلیل اللہ کوحاجت رسول اللہ ﷺ کی
آج لے ان کی پناہ آج مدد مانگ ان سے
پھر نہ مانیں گے قیامت میں اگر مان گیا
کون دیتا ہے دینے کو منہ چاہیے
دینے والا ہے سچا ہمارا نبی ﷺ

Important Articles - Aqaid AhleSunnah Wa Jammat اہم مضا مین ۔ عقا ئد اہل سنت و جما عت

Haqiqat al Muhammadiyah ﷺ

Last Updated: Sunday, March 22, 2015 - 12:00 AM
The Ahlus Sunnah wa'l Jamaah believe that it is indeed permissible to call the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) as 'Nur of Allah'. The Qur'an has itself applied this description to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and so have overwhelming ahadith.

However, it is often at this point that those who oppose this view believe from some erroneous conviction that we deem the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) as a non-human. This is indeed a strange and gross accusation. For those who claim that he was not a human, have clearly ventured out of the bounds of Islam, and have entered into kufr. The belief of Ahlus Sunnah wa'l Jamaah is that our Noble Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is Nur and Human

No doubt, Prophet [salehalawaalihi wasalam] Was a human being , No one rejects that Prophet [salehalawaalihi wasalam] was not a human being, but Prophet [salehalawaalihi wasalam] was also Noor and Allah created it before He created Adam

The Noor of Prophet [salehalawaalihi wasalam] is not part of Allah [naoozbila] but a seperate creation which Allah created ,

This is belief of Sunnis

Muslims don't take Him as God ,

If being Noor means God than see how many become God according to Quran/hadiths 

Noor of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)

Indeed, there has come to you from Allâh a noor (Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) and a plain Book (this Qur'ân). (5:15)
Noor of Muslims

Quran 39:22.
 Is he whose breast Allâh has opened to Islâm, so that he is in noor from His Lord
Quran 24:40
 And he for whom Allâh has not appointed noor, for him there is no noor

Quran 57:13.On the Day when the hypocrites men and women will say to the believers: "Wait for us! Let us get something from your noor.......!" 

Noor of Sun, Star, Moon

quran 10:5. It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the moon as a noor....
Quran 25: 61.
 Blessed be He Who has placed in the heaven big stars, and has placed therein a great lamp (sun), and a moon giving noor.
Quran 71:16
. And has made the moon a noor therein, and made the sun a lamp?

Noor of angels (malaikah)

SAhih Muslim Book 42 Hadith 7134
'A'isha reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The Angels were born out of light 

These All noors are different from one another. And cannot be compared, Are creations created by Allah , They are also physical and literal ,

So its what Quran and hadiths say, therre is no exaggeration

Objection 1 : Is Noor e Muhammad (saw) Nur of God or God 


Noor from Allah doesnt means literal part of Allah (swt), his son or relatives, naoozbila, this is shirk to think

aqeeda of ahle sunnah on this issue
NOOR E MUHAMMAD (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was not created from Zaat of Allah (naoozbila) 
, This is shirk to think that it was created from Zaat of Allah

quran says
 It is He Who has created the heavens and the earth in truth, and on the Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) He will say: "Be!", - and it shall become.,
Hence Allah willed and created Noor e Muhammad (saleh ala waalihi wasalam) as a creation( not from his own zaat) 
,and from that HE created the rest of universe as explained inproof 43 and many others from this creation , Noor e Muhammad (saw) is a creation of Allah and Allah is highest and creator, nothing is close to Allah in status

Allah says about Adam (aleh islam ) He was Ruh Allah 

Then when, I had formed him and have breathed into him of My special esteemed spirit, then fall down for him prostrate.( quran al hijr V29)

Here Roh Allah means Ruh was created by order of Allah and breathed into adam ,same is case with Nur e Muhammad (saleh ala waalihi wasalam)

In Light of Quran

  1. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is the Light of Allah, something a believer can say because the Qur’an affirms it in the verse.
    يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيرًا مِّمَّا كُنْتُمْ تُخْفُونَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَعْفُواْ عَن كَثِيرٍ قَدْ جَاءَكُم مِّنَ اللّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ

    "O people of the Book! There hath come to you our Messenger, revealing to you much that ye used to hide in the Book, and passing over much (that is now unnecessary). There hath come to you from Allah a (new) light and a perspicuous Book (Qur’an 5:15).

    The great Mufasir of Quran Allama Alusi (rah) writes under this ayah:

    عظيم وهو نور الأنوار والنبـي المختار صلى الله عليه وسلم
    Translation: He is the great Light upon Lights (Nur al Anwaar) and Nabi al-Mukhtar (i.e. given power by Allah to make Laws) [Al-Alusi in Ruh al Ma’ni under 5:15]

    There is a notable explanation among Ahl al-Sunna which ascribes the meaning of the Prophet to both the Light and the Book. al-Sayyid al-Alusi said in Ruh al-ma`ani: "I do not consider it far-fetched that what is meant by both the Light and the Manifest Book is the Prophet, the conjunction being in the same way as what was said by al-Jubba'i [in that that both the Light and the Book were the Qur'an]. There is no doubt that all can be said to refer to the Prophet.Perhaps you will be reluctant to accept this from the viewpoint of expression (`ibara); then let it be from the viewpoint of subtle allusion (ishara)." [Tafsir Ruh al-Ma`ani, Volume 006, Page No. 97-8]

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    Imam al-Sayyid Mahmud Alusi, Tafsir Ruh al-Ma`ani, Publish Dar al Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon

    Volume 006, Page No. 97-8

    Allama Alusi (rah) also said:وكونه صلى الله عليه وسلم رحمة للجميع باعتبار أنه عليه الصلاة والسلام واسطة الفيض الإلهي على الممكنات على حسب القوابل، ولذا كان نوره صلى الله عليه وسلم أول المخلوقات، ففي الخبر " أول ما خلق الله تعالى نور نبيك يا جابر " وجاء " الله تعالى المعطي وأنا القاسم " وللصوفية قدست أسرارهم في هذا الفصل كلام فوق ذلك،
    Translation: "The Prophet being a mercy to all is linked to the fact that he is the intermediary of the divine outpouring over all contingencies [i.e. all created things without exception], from the very beginnings (wasitat al-fayd al-ilahi `ala al-mumkinat `ala hasab al-qawabil), and that is why his light was the first of all things created, as stated in the report that "The first thing Allah created was the light of your Prophet, O Jabir," and also cited is: "Allah is the Giver and I am the Distributor." The Sufis -- may Allah sanctify their secrets -- have more to say on that chapter." [Tafsir Ruh al-Ma`ani, Volume 017, Page No. 105] 

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    Imam AlusiImam al-Sayyid Mahmud Alusi, Tafsir Ruh al-Ma`ani, Publish Dar al Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon

    Volume 017, Page No. 105

    قَدْ جاءَكُمْ مِنَ الله نُورٌ وكِتابٌ مُبِـينٌIn which the word Light has been explained by a number of other classic Scholars as follows:Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti on This Verse:

    هو النبي صلى الله عليه وسلمTranslation: It is the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace)" (Tafsir al-Jalalayn, 139).

    Imam Ibn al-Jawzi on this Verse:

    يعني بالنور: النبي محمداً صلى الله عليه وسلم
    Translation: The meaning of Nur is: The Prophet Muhammad (Peace upon him) [Z'ad al Maseer fil Ilm at-Tafseer Under the verse 5:15]

    (Imam Qurtubi) and Mawardi (al-Nukat wa al-‘uyun, 2.22) mention that interpreting Nur as "Muhammad" (Allah bless him and give him peace) was also the position by [the Imam of Arabic grammar Ibrahim ibn Muhammad] al-Zajjaj (d. 311/923). [Ahkam al-Qur’an , 6.118]

    (Fakhr al-Razi) "There are various positions about it, the first being that the Light is Muhammad, and the Book is the Qur’an " (al-Tafsir al-kabir, 11:194).

    Among the scholars who said : "What is meant by a Light is: Muhammad,Blessings and peace upon him." are►Suyuti in Tafsir al-Jalalayn,

    ►Fayruzabadi in the Tafsir Ibn `Abbas entitled Tanwir al-miqbas (p. 72)

    ►Shaykh al-Islam, Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, the Mujaddid of the sixth century, in his Tafsir al-kabir (11:189)

    ►Imam al-Shirbini in his Tafsir entitled al-Siraj al-munir (p. 360), the author of Tafsir Abi Sa`ud (4:36)

    ►Thana'ullah Pani Patti in his Tafsir al-mazhari, (3:67)

    Nabuwat was wajid upon nabi sallallahu alihi wa sallam before existence of Adam (A.S)حدثنا ‏ ‏أبو همام الوليد بن شجاع بن الوليد البغدادي ‏ ‏حدثنا ‏ ‏الوليد بن مسلم ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏الأوزاعي ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏يحيى بن أبي كثير ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبي سلمة ‏ ‏عن ‏ ‏أبي هريرة ‏ ‏قال ‏

    قالوا يا رسول الله متى وجبت لك النبوة قال ‏ ‏وآدم ‏ ‏ بين الروح والجسد ‏

    قال ‏ ‏أبو عيسى ‏ ‏هذا ‏ ‏حديث حسن صحيح غريب
    Narrated Abu Hurraira (ra) that he asked the Prophet (saw): When did Nabuwah become Wajib upon you? (The Prophet) said: When Adam was between Spirit and body
    ► Sunnan Tirimdhi Volume 2 Page 201, Chapter of Merits Hadith No. 3688 – Imam Tirimdhi declared it Hassan Sahih Gharib.

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    Volume 2 Page 201, Chapter of Merits Hadith No. 3688

    2. The Parable of Allah’s Nur is Nur of Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace)

  2. Quran states:
    اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِن شَجَرَةٍ مُّبَارَكَةٍ زَيْتُونَةٍ لَّا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلَا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِيءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ نُّورٌ عَلَى نُورٍ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
    Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The "Parable" of His Light is as if there were a Niche and within it a Lamp: the Lamp enclosed in Glass: the glass as it were a brilliant star: Lit from a blessed Tree, an Olive, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil is well-nigh luminous, though fire scarce touched it: Light upon Light! Allah doth guide whom He will to His Light: Allah doth set forth Parables for men: and Allah doth know all things. (Quran 24:35)

    Qadhi Iyad (Rahimuhullah) explains "Parable" of Allah's Nur in detail in his maginificent work of Seerah called Ash-Shifa

    و قال الله تعالى : الله نور السماوات والأرض مثل نوره كمشكاة فيها مصباح المصباح في زجاجة الزجاجة كأنها كوكب دري يوقد من شجرة مباركة زيتونة لا شرقية ولا غربية يكاد زيتها يضيء ولو لم تمسسه نار نور على نور يهدي الله لنوره من يشاء ويضرب الله الأمثال للناس والله بكل شيء عليم [ سورة النور / 24 : الأية 35 ] .
    قال كعب ، و ابن جبير : المراد بالنور الثاني هنا محمد عليه السلام و قوله تعالى مثل نوره أي نور محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم .

    و قال سهل بن عبد الله : المعنى : الله هادي أهل السموات و الأرض ، ثم قال : مثل نور محمد إذ كان مستودعاً في الأصلاب كمشكاة صفتها كذا ، و أراد بالمصباح قلبه ، و بالزجاجة صدره ، أي كأنه كوكب دري لما فيه من الإيمان و الحكمة يوقد من شجرة مباركة أي من نور إبراهيم . و ضرب المثل بالشجرة المباركة و قوله : يكاد زيتها يضيء أي تكاد نبوة محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم تبين للناس قبل كلامه كهذا الزيت
    و قيل في هذه الآية غير هذا . و الله أعلم
    و قد سماه الله تعالى في القرآن في غير هذا الموضع نوراً و سراجاً منيراً ، فقال تعالى : قد جاءكم من الله نور وكتاب مبين [ سورة المائدة / 5 : الآية 15]
    و قال تعالى : إنا أرسلناك شاهدا ومبشرا ونذيرا * وداعيا إلى الله بإذنه وسراجا منيرا [ سورة الأحزاب / 33 : الأية 45 ـ 46 ]
    Translation: Allah says: Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth; a likenessof His light is as a niche in which is a lamp, the lamp is in a glass, (and) the glass is as it were a brightly shining star, lit from a blessed olive-tree, neither eastern nor western, the oil whereof almost gives light though fire touch it not-- light upon light-- Allah guides to His light whom He pleases, and Allah sets forth parables for men, and Allah is Cognizant of all things.(Surah Nur, 24. Ayah 35)Ka’b al-Ahbar (ra) and Ibn Jubayr (ra) said: By the second light He means Muhammad (Peace be upon him).Allah said “The Likness of his light” this refers to the Nur of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم)

    Sahl bin Abdullah (ra) said that it means that Allah is the “guide” of creation in heavens and the earth, he then said:Like the Light of Muhammad (Peace be upon him) when it is lodged in the loins (of his forefathers) like a niche. By the Lamp he means his heart. The glass is his breast. It is as if it were a glittering star because of the belief and wisdom it contains, kindled from a blessed tree, i.e. from the light of Ibrahim (a.s). He makes a comparison with the blessed tree and He says: “Its oil would nearly shine” i.e. Muhammad (salallaho alaihi wasalam)’s prophecy is evident to the people even before he speaks just like the oil.

    A lot more is said about this ayat, and Allah knows the best about it, elsewhere in the Quran Allah calls his Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) a Light and a LIGHT GIVING LAMP. He says: “A Light and a clear book have come to you from Allah (5:15), Allah also says: “We sent you as a witness, a barrier or glad tidings and a warner, one who calls to Allah with his permission and a Light-giving Lamp (33:46)


    ►Ash-Shifa bi Tarif al Haquq al Mustafa, Page No. 6

    Imam Ibn Kathir (Rahimuhullah) says under this ayah

    وقال شمر بن عطية: جاء ابن عباس إلى كعب الأحبار فقال: حدثني عن قول الله تعالى: { يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِىۤءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ } قال: يكاد محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم يبين للناس، ولو لم يتكلم أنه نبي؛ كما يكاد ذلك الزيت أن يضيء

    Translation: Ibn Abbas (ra) went to Ka’b al-Ahbar (ra) and asked him to explain the Allah's saying: {whose oil is well-nigh luminous}, Ka'b (ra) said: It is an (example of) Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) i.e. He is evident to people as Prophet even if he had not declared his Nabuwah, just like the olive oil glows even without being lit


    ►Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Volume No.3, Page No. 490, under 24:35
    Imam al-Baghwi (Rahimuhullah) explains:

    فقال بعضهم: وقع هذا التمثل لنور محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، قال ابن عباس لكعب الأحبار: أخبرني عن قوله تعالى: { مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ } فقال كعب: هذا مثل ضربه الله لنبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم، فالمشكاة صدره، والزجاجة قلبه، والمصباح فيه النبوة، توقد من شجرة مباركة هي شجرة النبوة، يكاد نور محمد وأمره يتبين للناس ولو لم يتكلم أنه نبي كما يكاد ذلك الزيت يضيء ولو لم تمسسه نار.
    Translation: Some (scholars) said: This similitude refers to Nur of Muhammad (salallaho alaihi wasalam), Ibn Abbas (ra) asked Kab al-Ahbar (ra) to explain Similitude of Nur, at which he replied: Allah has mentioned his Prophet (Peace be upon him) as a parable in this ayah, Mishkat refers to the chest of Prophet (saw), Glass refers to his heart, and Misbah refers to his Nabuwahand the wording “whose oil is well-nigh luminous” means that even if Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had not declared himself a Prophet still his Nurwould have glowed proving to people that he is a NabiReference

    ►Ma’lim at Tanzil by Imam Baghawi, Under 24:35

    Imam Ibn Jarir at-Tabri (rah) explains Similitude of Allah’s Nur as:

    جاء ابن عبـاس إلـى كعب الأحبـار، فقال له: حدثنـي عن قول الله: { مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كمِشْكاةٍ } قال: الـمشكاة وهي الكَوّة، ضربها الله مثلاً لـمـحمد صلى الله عليه وسلم، الـمِشكاة { فِـيها مِصْبـاحٌ الـمِصْبـاحُ } قلبه { فِـي زُجاجَةٍ الزُّجاجَةُ } صدره الزجاجة { كأنَّها كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيّ } شبه صدر النبـيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بـالكوكب الدريّ،
    ، { يَكادُ زَيْتُها يُضِىءُ } يكاد مـحمد يبـين للناس وإن لـم يتكلـم أنه نبـيّ، كما يكاد ذلك الزيت يضيء
    Translation: Ibn Abbas (ra) presents the explanation of Kab al-Ahbar (ra) as: {The parable of his light is as there were a niche} Niche here refers to a lantern, this example which Allah has given is of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that he is a Lantern which contains light, {And within it a lamp} meaning his heart{and lamp enclosed in a glass} meaning his chest { the glass as it were a brilliant star}The chest of Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is explained through parable of glowing star…. { whose oil is well-nigh luminous} means that even if Prophet (saw)had not declared himself a Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) still his (Nur) would have glowed proving to people that he is a Nabi


    ►Tafsir at-Tabri, under 24:35

    Hadrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (RA) explaines the “Parable” of Allah’s Nur as:

    مثل نوره نور محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم في أصلاب آبائه على هذا الوصف إلى
    Translation: The Parable of Allah’s Nur is Nur of Muhammad (Salallaho alaihi wasalam) which was present in the loins of his forefathers [Reference:Tanwir al Miqbas, Min Tafsir Ibn Abbas, Page No. 376, Published by Maktaba al Asriyyah, Beirut, Lebanon]

    Continuing the Tafsir: It is also said that the verse means: the likeness of the light of Muhammad in the loins of his forefathers is like this, up to Allah's saying (… kindled from a blessed tree). He says: the light of Muhammadin Abraham was an upright religion (olive tree), and Abraham was neither Jew nor Christian (neither of the East nor of the West), the works of Abraham would almost glow forth in the loins of his forefathers like this (would almost glow forth (of itself)), up until Allah's saying (kindled from a blessed tree) He says: as if it is the light of Muhammad (pbuh) and if Abraham was not a prophet, he would still have this light (though no fire touched it); it is also said that the latter passage means: Had Allah not honored Abraham, he would not have had this light; it is also said: if Allah had not honored His believing servant with this light, he would not have had it.

    Please note: Tanwir al Miqbas is only quoted to provide a corroborating reference

    Imam Suyuti said in al-Riyad al-aniqa: Ibn Jubayr and Ka`b al-Ahbar said:

    "What is meant by the second light is the Prophet because he is the Messenger and the Expositor and the Conveyor from Allah of what is enlightening and manifest." Ka`b said: "Its oil well nigh would shine because the Prophet well nigh would be known to the people even if he did not say that he was a Prophet, just as that oil would send forth light without a fire."

    Among those who said that the meaning of " مَثَلُ نُورِهِ" -- the likeness of His Light -- is the Prophet Muhammad, upon him blessings and peace:
    ►Ibn Jarir al-Tabari in his Tafsir (18:95),

    ►Suyuti in al-Durr al-manthur (5:49),

    ►Zarqani in Sharh al-mawahib (3:171),

    ►al-Khafaji in Nasim al-riyad (1:110, 2:449),

    ►al-Nisaburi in Ghara'ib al-Qur'an (18:93) said: "The Prophet is a light and a light-giving lamp."
    ►al-Qari in Sharh al-shifa' said: "The most apparent meaning is to say that what is meant by the light is Muhammad."

In Light of Hadith

  1. Hadith #1

    Arbaz Bin Sariyah (ra) narrated that the Sahaba asked (about reality of Prophet). The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said: I am the prayer of Ibrahim (Peace Be Upon Him) and Esa (Peace Be Upon Him) gave glad tiding of my arrival to his nation.My mother saw such a Light (Nur) coming out from her body that it lit the castles of Syria


    ►Bayhaqi, Dala’il un Nubuwwah, Volume 001, Page No. 83 Click here for Scanned Page 

    Imam BayhaqiFront Cover, Dala’il un Nubuwwah, Published by Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, Lebanon
    Volume 001, Page No. 83

    ►Imam Ibn Kathir (rah) narrated it in his Tafsir (4:360).►It is also narrated by al-Hakim in his Mustadrak (2:616-617)►Ahmad in his Musnad (4:184)

    ►Bayhaqi again in Dala'il al-nubuwwa (1:110, 2:8).

    ►Ibn al-Jawzi cites it in al-Wafa' (p. 91, ch. 21 of Bidayat nabiyyina sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam

    ►Haythami cites it in Majma` al-zawa'id (8:221) and said Tabarani and Ahmad narrated it, and Ahmad's chain is fair (hasan). See for Ahmad's complete text Bisharatu `Isa (#454).

  2. Hadith #2

    Musannaf Abdur Razaq
    It is narrated by Imam Abdur Razaq from Mua'mar, from Ibn al-Manqadr, from Jabir ibn `Abd Allah who said to the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) : "O Messenger of Allah (Peace Be Upon Him), may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, tell me of the first thing Allah created before all things." He (Peace Be Upon Him) said: "O Jabir, the first thing Allah created was the light of your Prophet from His (created) light, and that light remained (lit. "turned") in the midst of His Power for as long as He wished, and there was not, at that time, a Tablet or a Pen or a Paradise or a Fire or an angel or a heaven or an earth. And when Allah wished to create creation, he divided that Light into four parts and from the first made the Pen, from the second the Tablet, from the third the Throne, [and from the fourth everything else]......."References
    ►Musannaf Abdur Razaq, al-Juz al-Mafqud min al-Juz al-Awwal min al-Musannaf Abdur Razaq, Page No. 99, Hadith Number 18
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    Musannaf Abdur Razaqal Juz al Mafqud min al Juz al Awwal min al Musannaf Razaq Publish Dar al Muhadith Riyadh Saudia

    Page No. 99, Hadith Number 18

    ►Qastalani in Mawahib ul Laduniyah Volume 001, Page No. 71,
    ►Zurqani in Sharah Mawahib ul Laduniyah Volume 001, Page No. 89-91,
    ►Ajluni in Kashf al-Khafa (وقال : رواه عبد الرزاق بسنده عن جابر بن عبد اﷲ رضي اﷲ عنهما) Volume 001, Page No. 311, Hadith Number 827,
    ►Halabi in his Sirah Volume 001, Page No. 50,
    ►Ashraf Ali Thanvi in Nashar ut-Tib Volume 001, Page No. 13Imam Ibn Hajr al-Haythami (rah)narrates in his Fatawa al Hadithiyyah: 

    فقد أخرج عبد الرزاق بسنده عن جابر بن عبد الله الأنصاري رضي الله عنهما قال: "قلت: يا رسول الله بأبي أنت وأمي أخبرني عن أوّل شيء خلقه الله قبل الأشياء؟ قال: يا جابر إن الله خلق قبل الأشياء نور نبيك محمد صلى الله عليه وسلّم من نوره فجعل ذلك النور يدور بالقدرة حيث شاء الله، ولم يكن في ذلك الوقت لوح ولا قلم ولا جنة ولا نار ولا ملك ولا سماء ولا أرض ولا شمس ولا قمر ولا إنس ولا جن، فلما أراد الله تعالى أن يخلق الخلق قسم ذلك النور أربعة أجزاء: فخلق من الجزء الأوّل القلم، ومن الثاني اللوح، ومن الثالث العرش، ثم قسم الجزء الرابع أربعة أجزاء: فخلق من الأول حملة العرش، ومن الثاني الكرسي، ومن الثالث باقي الملائكة

    Undoubtedly Abdur Razzaq mentioned with his Sanad from Jabir ibn `Abd Allah who asked: "O Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you, tell me of the first thing Allah created before all things." He said: "O Jabir, the first thing Allah created was the light of your Prophet from His light, and that light remained (lit. "turned") in the midst of His Power for as long as He wished, and there was not, at that time, a Tablet or a Pen or a Paradise or a Fire or an angel or a heaven or an earth. And when Allah wished to create creation, he divided that Light into four parts and from the first made the Pen, from the second the Tablet, from the third the Throne, [and from the fourth everything else]Reference

    ►Narrated by Imam Ibn Hajr al Haytami in Fatawa al Hadithiyyah Page No. 289

    Note: Sheikh Abdul Haqq Muhadith Dhelvi (Rahimuhullah) said: The source of creation, universe and of Adam is Nur of Muhammad(Salallaho alaihi wasalam), hence "IT HAS COME IN SAHIH HADITH THAT THE FIRST THING WHICH ALLAH CREATED WAS MY NUR!" [Madarij al Nabuwah, Volume No.2, Page No. 2]

    Some people object that in hadith it has also come that first thing which Allah created was Al-Qalam (i.e. pen) and they cite the hadith in Tirimdhi as proof which states: أَوَّلُ مَا خَلَقَ اللهُ الْقَلَمُ (i.e. First thing which Allah created was the pen)
    They say that hence Pen is the first creation therefore the hadith of Prophet (Peace be upon him) being first created Nur contradicts it.
    This is their misconception because things have been first created according to their relative primacy, here is hadith from Sahih Bukhari which even proves Throne and Water to be created before Pen

    كان اللهُ ولم يكُنْ شيءٌ غيرُه. وكان عرشُهُ على الماء

     First of all, there was nothing but Allah, and (then He created His Throne). His throne was over the water [Translation by Muhsin Khan, Sahih Bukhari in English, Volume 4, Book 54, Number 414]After seeing this the deniers are dumbstruck and their own pseudo logic stands refuted because now there is even conflict between other Sahih ahadith regarding what was the first thing created! But the point is how to bring reconciliation? Imam Badr ud-din Ayni (rah) gave a magnificent answer, he states in his Umdat al Qari, Sharh Sahih al Bukhari

    روى أحمد والترمذي مصححا من حديث عبادة بن الصامت مرفوعاً أول ما خلق الله القلم ثم قال أكتب فجرى بما هو كائن إلى يوم القيامة واختاره الحسن وعطاء ومجاهد وإليه ذهب إبن جرير وابن الجوزي وحكى ابن جرير عن محمد بن إسحاق أنه قال أول ما خلق الله تعالى النور والظلمة ثم ميز بينهما فجعل الظلمة ليلاً أسود مظلماً وجعل النور نهاراً أبيض مبصراً وقيل أو ما خلق الله تعالى نور محمد قلت التوفيق بين هذه الروايات بأن الأولية نسبي وكل شيء قيل فيه إنه أول فهو بالنسبة إلى ما بعدها

    Translation: Imam Ahmed and Imam Tirimdhi have narrated the Marfu hadith with Sahih Isnad from Ibada bin Samit (ra) which proves that Allah first created the Pen and then told it to write and It wrote everything which would happen till day of Judgement. Hassan, Ata and Mujahid have adopted this too, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Jawzi also have this Madhab whereas Ibn Jarir has narrated from Muhammad bin Ishaq that “ALLAH CREATED THE NUR AND DARKNESS PRIOR TO EVERYTHING” and then differentiated between them, There is also a saying that Allah first created “THE NUR OF MUHAMMAD (PEACE BE UPON HIM)” so how could reconciliation be brought in these different narrations? I say that they could be reconciled by saying that everything has its “RELATIVE PRIMACY” and they are first in relevance to things which came after them. [Umdat al Qari, Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume No. 15, Page No. 109]

    Mullah Ali Qari (rah) beautifully said:
    الأوّل الحقيقي هو النور المحمدي على ما بينته في المورد للمولد

    Translation: The first reality is the “NUR-AL-MUHAMMADI” as I have mentioned in my book Al-Mawrid lil-Mawlid [Mullah Ali Qari in Mirqat, Sharh al Mishqaat (1/289), Published by Dar ul Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon]

    Mullah Ali Qari (rah) also said:

    والأوّلية من الأمور الإضافية فيؤوّل أن كل واحد مما ذكر خلق قبل ما هو من جنسه ؛ فالقلم خلق قبل جنس الأقلام ونوره قبل الأنوار وإلا فقد ثبت أن العرش قبل خلق السموات والأرض، فتطلق الأوّلية على كل واحد بشرط التقييد فيقال: أوّل المعاني كذا، وأوّل الأنوار كذا، ومنه قوله: «أوّل ما خلق الله نوري»، وفي رواية: «روحي» ومعناهما واحد، فإن الأرواح نورانية

    Translation: Being first is amongst the matters of “Idhafiyah” hence the interpretation will be done that these things (i.e. Qalam, Aql, Nur, Ruh, Arsh etc…) are first according to their own “JINS” hence Pen was created first in relevance to other Pens [Note: Here Mullah Ali Qari is beautifully explaining relative primacy] and the Nur [al-Muhammadi] was created prior to every other Nur. It is also proven that Arsh was created prior to heavens and earth and all this will be attributed towards one meaning as the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: “The First thing which Allah created was my Nur” and It has also come in another report thatIt was his “RUH” and both of them “HAVE SAME MEANING BECAUSE SPIRITS ARE CREATED FROM NUR[Mullah Ali Qari in Mirqat, Sharh al-Mishqaat (1/290), Published by Dar ul Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon]

    So people who deny Muhammadan reality are first asked to pass a verdict of Kufr/Shirk upon Imam Badr ud-din Ayni (rah), Imam al-Qastallani (rah), Mullah Ali Qari (rah), Ibn Hajr al-Haythami (rah), Allama Alusi (rah) and many others, only then they can have a valid difference of opinion over this issue! 

    The hadith of Jabir bin Abdullah (rah) is further authenticated by another hadith which is Sahih and proves that Nur of Prophet (Peace be upon him) was created prior to Adam (a.s).

    2) Abu Hurraira (ra) narrates from the Messenger of Allah (May Peace be upon him) that he said: When Allah created Adam (Peace be upon him) He informed him of his descendants, at this Adam (Peace be upon him) saw superiority of some over others, then he saw me towards the end in form of an “ILLUMINATING NUR”(i.e. the Last of the Prophets to be sent) he (adam) said: O my Lord who is this? The Lord replied: This is your son Ahmed who is the first and the last and (on the Day of Judgment) he will be first to do intercession.


    ►Bayhaqi, Dala’il un Nubuwwah: Volume 005, Page No. 483

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    Imam BayhaqiFront Cover, Dala’il un Nubuwwah, Published by Dar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, Lebanon
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  3. Hadith #3

    Imam Taj ad-Din Subki said: "It has been said that Allah created the spirits before the bodies, and the Prophet's reference to his prophecy in the hadith, "I was a Prophet while Adam was still between the spirit and the body”may be a reference to his blessed spirit and to the Reality of Realities (haqiqat al-haqa'iq). Our minds fall short of knowing such a Reality, but its Creator knows it, and also those to whom He extends a madad of light from Him [man amaddahu bi nurin ilahi]. Allah brings to existence whichever of these realities that He likes in the time that He pleases. As for the reality of the Prophet, it is most likely that it was before the creation of Adam, and Allah gave it its prophetic attribute upon its creation; therefore already at that time, he was the Prophet."


    ►Imam Qastallani, Mawahib al-laduniyya Volume 001, Page No. 31-32

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    Imam QastallaniImam Qastallani, Mawahib al-laduniyya, Publish Dar al Kutub al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, Lebanon
    Volume 001, Page No. 31-32

    There is a further confirmation of the relation of the light of the Prophet to that of the rest of creation in the hadiths comparing Prophetic knowledge to the light of the stars in the darkness of night. Anas relates that the Prophet said: "The simile of the scholars of knowledge (al-`ulama') on the earth is the stars in the sky by which one is guided in the darkness of the land and the sea. When the stars are clouded over, the guides are about to be lost." Ahmad narrated it in his Musnad (Volume 003, Page No. 157 Hadith Number12606) with a chain containing Rishdin ibn Sa`d who is weak. However, it is confirmed by the hadith in Muslim and Ahmad narrated by Abu Musa al-Ash`ari whereby the Prophet said: The stars are trust-keepers for the heaven, and when the stars wane, the heaven is brought what was promised (i.e. of the corruption of the world and the coming of the Day of Judgment); and I am a trust-keeper for my Companions, so when I go my Companions will be brought what was promised them (i.e. of fitna and division); and my Companions are trustkeepers for my Community, so when they go my Community will be brought what was promised to you (i.e. following hawa and vying for dunya).

    Imam Abu Abdullah Ibn al-Haaj al-Maliki
    "The first thing Allah created is the light (Nur) of Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him), and that light came and prostrated before Allah. Allah divided it into four parts and created from the first part the Throne, from the second the Pen, from the third the Tablet, and then similarly He subdivided the fourth part into parts and created the rest of creation. Therefore the light of the Throne is from the light of Muhammad , the light of the Pen is from the light of Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him), the light of the Tablet is from the light of Muhammad , the light of day, the light of knowledge, the light of the sun and the moon, and the light of vision and sight are all from the light of Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him). [al-Madkhal, Volume 002, Page No. 32-3]  Scanned Page 

    Imam Abu Abdullah Ibn al-Haaj al-MalikiAl-Madkhal, Imam Abu Abdullah Ibn al-Haaj al-Maliki, Publish  Dar al-Turath, Qahira

    Volume 002, Page No. 32-3

  4. Hadith # 4
    Ka'aab bin Ahbaar said: That Adam (may peace and blessings be upon Him) said O my son whenever you do Zikr of Allah always remember to do zikr of Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) too with out doubt I saw his name written on skies when I was between Soul and Soil I did Tawaf of all the skies and didnt saw a single place in these skies when Muhammad name wasnt written, on the cheeks of Hoors, on the heaven's castle's tree leafs, on the leafs of Tooba tree, on the leaves of tree called Sidrah al-Muntiha, on the eyes of gatekeepers of heaven and between the eyes of angels I saw Muhammad written, so you should do their Zikr with much focus and extreme, without doubt the angels also remember him all the time.Reference

    ► Ibn Asakir, Tarikh Madina-Damishq Volume 023, Page No. 281: Publish: Dar al Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon

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    Ibn AsakirIbn Asakir, Tarikh Madina-Damishq, Publish  Dar al Fikr, Beirut, LebanonVolume 023, Page No. 281

  5. Hadith # 5

    Abdullah Ibn Abbas narrated: That I said 'O' Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), my mother and father be sacrificed on you where were you at the time Adam (may peace and blessings be upon Him) was in heaven, He said that the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) smiled so that his teeth became clear then he said I was in the loin of Adam (may peace and blessings be upon Him) and then in the loin of my father Noah (may peace and blessings be upon Him) then I was taken on a ship then my Light (Nur) was put into loin of Abraham (may peace and blessings be upon Him) my parents were never given to me expect those who did Nikah I was always transferred to pure people. In Turah and Bible was my name was mentioned every Prophet of Allah mentioned by blessings, With my Light (Nur) the morning was lightened and the people got cloud shadow due to me and Allah granted me one of his names and He is Mehmood of Arsh and I am Muhammad and Allah promised me Hodh al-Kosar and he made me the first Intercessor and I will be the first person who Intercession on will be accepted, and Allah gave me birth in the best time of mankind, the people of my Ummah are those who praise Allah, they ask to do good deeds and stop from sins.


    ►Ibn Asakir, Tarikh Madina-Damishq Volume 003, Page No. 408: Publish: Dar al Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon

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    Ibn AsakirIbn Asakir, Tarikh Madina-Damishq, Publish  Dar al Fikr, Beirut, LebanonVolume 003, Page No. 408

  6. Hadith # 6

    Hadrat Sayyida Halima Sa'adiya (radi Allahu anha) who was the one responsible for feeding milk to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) The one before whom the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) used to eat and drink, even she believed that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was Noor and this has been explained by Allama Muhadith Ibn Jauzi and Qazi Thanaullah Paani Pati (rahmatuallah aleh) as follows: "When I used to feed milk to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) then I never felt the need for a light in my house. Thus one day Umme Khula Sa'diya said, "O Halima ! Do you leave the fire burning for the entire night in your house? and I answered by saying, "No! I swear by Almighty Allah that I do not keep the fire burning at all. This Noor and brightness is that of Sayidduna Rasoolullah Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)

    ►Bayaanul Miladun Nabwi pg 54 - Tafseere Mazhari

  7. Hadith # 7 
    لَمَّا كَانَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي دَخَلَ فِيهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْمَدِينَةَ أَضَاءَ مِنْهَا كُلُّ شَيْءٍ فَلَمَّا كَانَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي مَاتَ فِيهِ أَظْلَمَ مِنْهَا كُلُّ شَيْءٍ وَلَمَّا نَفَضْنَا عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْأَيْدِي وَإِنَّا لَفِي دَفْنِهِ حَتَّى أَنْكَرْنَا قُلُوبَنَا

    Sayyidina Anas ibn Maalik (RA) narrated: The day when Allah’s Messenger entered Madinah, everything in it was illuminated. Then, the day when he died everything in it became dark. And we had barely dusted off our hands after burying him when our hearts changed.


    ►Trimidhi Hadith No: 3638

    ►Musnad Ahmad Hadith No: 13311

    ►Ibne Majah Hadith No: 1613

    ►Muwahibul ladaniyah pg 68 vol 1

    ►Mustadrik pg 12 vol 3

  8. Hadith # 8
    Ibn 'Abbas said: I spent the night in the house of my mother's sister, Maimuna, and observed how the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) prayed (at night). He got up and relieved himself. He then washed his face and hands and then went to sleep. He again got up and went near the water-skin and loosened its straps and then poured some water in a bowl and inclined it with his hands (towards himself). He then performed a good ablution between the two extremes and then stood up to pray. I also came and stood by his left side. He took hold of me and made me stand on his right side. It was in thirteen rak'ahs that the (night) prayer of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was completed. He then slept till he began to snore, and we knew that he had gone to sleep by his snoring. He then went out (for the dawn prayer) and then again slept, and said while praying or prostrating himself:" O Allah! place light in my heart, light in my hearing, light in my sight, light on my right, light on my left, light in front of me, light behind me, light above me, light below me, make light for me," or he said:"Make me light." 


    ►Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Hadith #1677

  9. Hadith # 9
    'Abdullah b. 'Abbas reported: He spent (one night) in the house of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). He (the Holy Prophet) got up, brushed his teeth and performed ablution and said:" In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of the night and the day, there are indeed signs for people of understanding" (al-Qur'an, iii. 190), to the end of the Surah. He then stood up and prayed two rak'ahs, standing, bowing and prostrating himself at length in them. Then he finished, went to sleep and snored. He did that three times, six rak'ahs altogether, each time cleaning his teeth, performing ablution, and reciting these verses. Then he observed three rak'ahs of Witr. The Mu'adhdhin then pronounced the Adhan and he went out for prayer and was saying,:" O Allah I place light in my heart, light in my tongue, place light in my hearing, place light in my eyesight, place light behind me, and light in front of me, and place light above me, and light below me. O Allah! grant me light."

    ►Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Hadith #1682

  10. Hadith # 10
    مجتمعات فقالت امرأة منهن يا نساء قريش أيتكن تتزوج هذا الفتى فتصطاد النور الذي بين عينيه وإن بين عينيه نوراً قال فتزوجته آمنة بنت وهب بن عبد مناف بن زهرة فجامعها فحملت برسول الله
    al-Zuhri narrated: `Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-Muttalib was the most handsome man that had ever been seen among the Quraysh. One day he went out and was seen by a an assembly of the women of Quraysh. One of them said: "O women of the Quraysh, which among you will marry this youth and catch thereby the light that is between his eyes?" For verily there was a light between his eyes. Thereafter Amina bint Wahb ibn `Abd Manaf ibn Zuhra married him, and after he joined her she carried Allah's Messenger.

    ►al-Bayhaqi narrated it in Dala'il al-nubuwwa (1:87)

    ► Tabari in his Tarikh (2:243)

    ►Ibn al-Jawzi in al-Wafa' (p. 82-83, ch. 16 of Abwab bidayati nabiyyina)

  11. Hadith # 11
    1) Ibn al Jawzi al-Hanbali, narrates that the light of the Messenger of Allah would overcome the light of both the sun and lamp

    Reference: [Al Wafa, Chapter al Wilada, Ibn al Jawzi]

    2) Abu ‘Ubayda ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ammar ibn Yasir said: “I said to say to al-Rubayyi’ bint Mu ‘awwadh: ‘Describe for me Allah's Messenger.’ She replied: ‘If you saw him you would say: The sun is rising.’”
    References: Bayhaqi narrates it with his isnad in Dala’il al-Nubuwwa (1:200), and Haythami in Majma’ al-Zawa’id (8:280) says that al-Tabarani narrates it in al-Mu'jam al-kabir and al-Awsat and that its narrators have been declared trustworthy.

    3) That when Adam (May Allah bless him and grant Him peace) was being created, the noor of Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace] was placed in Adam [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace]’s forehead and Adam [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace] saw Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace], Adam [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace] asked “who is he?” Allah Ta’ala replied “He is the last Prophet and will be the chief of your children.”

    Reference: Al Wafa chap on Birth of Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant Him peace] by Ibn Jawzi

  12. Hadith # 12
    Imam Qadhi Iyaad (rah) narrates:
    و عن ابن عباس : إن قريشاً كانت نوراً بين يدي الله تعالى قبل أن يخلق آدم بألفي عام ، يسبح ذلك النور ، و تسبح الملائكة بتسبيحه ، فلما خلق الله آدم ألقى ذلك النور في صلبه ، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : فأهبطني الله إلى الأرض في صلب آدم ، و جعلني في صلب نوح ، و قذف بي في صلب ابراهيم ، ثم لم يزل الله تعالى ينقلني من الأصلاب الكريمة و الأرحام الطاهرة ، حتى أخرجني من بين أبوي لم يلتقيا على سفاح قط

    Translation: Ibn Abbas (ra) said that the spirit of the Prophet was a light in the hands of Allah two thousand years before he created Adam. That light glorified Him and the angels glorified by his glorification. When Allah created Adam, He casted that light into his loins. The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) then said: “Allah brought me down to earth in the loins of Adam (a.s), placed me in the loins of Nuh (a.s) and then cast me into the loins of Ibrahim (a.s). Allah continued to move me from noble loins and pure wombs until he brought me out from my parents. None of them were ever joined together in fornication


    ►Qadhi Iyaad in Ash-Shifa bi Tarif al Haquq al Mustafa, Page No. 43

  13. Hadith #13
    عن العِرْباض بن سارِيَة قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «إِنّي عِنْدَ الله لَخَاتِمُ النَّبِيِّينَ وإِنَّ آدَمَ لمُنْجَدِلٌ فِي طِيْنَتِه» .

    Translation: Narrated by Arbaas bin Sariyah (ra) who said that the Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) said: I was the last Prophet in sight of Allah when Adam was intermingled in mud [Al Wafa bi Ahwal lil Mustafa by Ibn Jawzi, Page No. 25]
    Takhreej: Narrated by Hakim in his Mustadrak 2/600 and Tabarani in his Al-Kabir 18/253, and Al Baihaqi in his Dalail an Nabuwwa 1/83, Ibn Asakir in Tarikh ul Dimishq 1/38

    Ibn Hibban in his “Sahiha” Hadith No. 2093, Imam Ahmed in his Musnad 4/127, 128
    Hakim said in his Mustadrak (2/600): This Hadith has Sahih chain, Haythami narrated it in Majma Az Zawaid (8/223) where he said: It is narrated by Ahmed, Tabarani, Al-Bazzar, the narrators of Ahmed are those of Sahih, except for Sa’id bin Suwaid who is Thiqa as said by Ibn Hibban

  14. Hadith #14
    حدثنا الحسن قثنا أحمد بن المقدام العجلي قثنا الفضيل بن عياض قثنا ثور بن يزيد عن خالد بن معدان عن زاذان عن سلمان قال سمعت حبيبي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول كنت انا وعلي نورا بين يدي الله عز وجل قبل ان يخلق آدم بأربعة عشر ألف عام فلما خلق الله آدم قسم ذلك النور جزءين فجزء أنا وجزء علي عليه السلام

    Salman (ra) narrates that he heard the beloved Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) say: I along with Ali were Nur in hands of Allah, 14000 years before he created Adam


    ►Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal in Fadhail as Sahaba, Volume No. 2,Page No. 663, Hadith No 1130

    Note: It is known to Ahlus sunnah wal Jammah that the above hadith about Prophet (Peace be upon him) and Ali (ra) is not authentic but in relevance to other overwhelming ahadith shown and the Usool that many ahadith on a certain subject streghthen eachother, we are citing it and there is no problem if this specific hadith is rejected by someone. Having said that It should be clarified that those who understand that Arwah were created prior to bodies would know that mention of Ali (ra) over here is just to praise him though the arwah of other sahaba like Abu Bakr (ra) are also created from the Nur of Muhammad (salallaho alaihi wasalam), such a high and primitive praise has


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